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Human Pappilomavirus (HPV) induced cancers and prevention by immunization.

Abstract

Incidences of different types of cancer are increasing in Pakistan, among which cancer of Cervix and Respiratory pappilomatosis are of great concern because of their association with human Pappilomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancers typically distress women of middle age or older; however it may affect women in any age after the puberty. Two serotypes of HPV (16 & 18) accounts 70% of cervical cancer cases, while HPV (6 & 11) are considered low-risk viruses associated with genital warts (Condyloma acuminata) and Respiratory pappilomatosis in both gender. Generally, there is transient role of HPV in human body and are removed by immune system in or around 1 year. Data from different Pakistani hospitals provides sound evidence for increasing trends of cervical cancer, which is, being developing country imperative for us. As the cost of cancer management is increasing day by day with poor survival rate and its burden is borne by patient, their family or society in-large, so if screening or prevention is possible then there would be need to identify target population for screening and vaccination. By quality adjusted life year (QALY) measurement, the data from different sources indicates that adolescent age is the appropriate target population and is cost effective for vaccination. Two vaccines manufactured by recombinant DNA technology are licensed in some parts of the world for prevention of HPV related cancers, however both have certain advantage over another, as one of the vaccines contains viral like proteins of two HPV serotypes 16 & 18 and provide additional cross protection against HPV type 13 and 45 with 100% seroprotection, while the other vaccine, being quadrivalent offers protection against four serotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18. Both vaccines tolerability and safety profiles are similar and acceptable, however bivalent vaccine appears to provide long-lasting immunity by the development of memory B-cells hypothetically due to difference of adsorbing agent used by manufacturer, on the other hand, quadrivalent vaccine offers protection against cervical cancer but also offers additional protection against Condyloma acuminata and respiratory Pappilomatosis. As these vaccines are new in the market and initial trials indicate availability of antibodies for up to around 5 years i.e. why it is controversial at the moment that whether booster dose is recommended or not, however it is assumed that, there is no harm to have booster dose at 5th year of vaccination.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Pharmaceutics, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan. sheikh1974@gmail.com

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    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Female
    Humans
    Immunization
    Immunization Schedule
    Incidence
    Male
    Neoplasms
    Pakistan
    Papillomaviridae
    Papillomavirus Infections
    Papillomavirus Vaccines
    Risk Assessment
    Treatment Outcome
    Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23009992