Semen apoptotic M540 body levels correlate with testis abnormalities: a study in a cohort of infertile subjects.Hum Reprod. 2012 Dec; 27(12):3393-402.HR
What are the associations between semen apoptotic M540 bodies and other parameters of semen quality and sonographic alterations of the male genital tract in a cohort of infertile subjects?
In infertile subjects, semen M450 bodies are highly correlated with ultrasound and clinical signs of testis abnormalities but not with alterations of other parts of the male genital tract, suggesting a testicular origin of M540 bodies.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY
We have reported the presence in semen of round anucleate elements, named 'M540 bodies', resembling apoptotic bodies as they contain several apoptotic markers.
STUDY DESIGN AND SIZE
A consecutive series of 130 males with couple infertility were evaluated, during the same day session, for clinical, scrotal and transrectal color-Doppler ultrasound characteristics, and hormonal and semen parameters, including interleukin 8 (sIL-8) and M540 body levels.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING METHODS
Semen parameters were analyzed by WHO recommended procedures. CDU was performed using the ultrasonographic console Hitachi H21. sIL-8 and serum hormones were evaluated by ELISA methods.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
The average percentage value of M540 bodies was 24.6 ± 18.3. After adjusting for possible confounders (age, waist, calculated free testosterone and smoking habit), M450 body levels negatively correlated with sperm number/ejaculate, progressive motility, normal morphology and sIL-8 levels (adj.r = -0.455, P < 0.0001; adj.r = -0.464, P < 0.0001; adj.r = -0.430, P < 0.001; adj.r = -0.236, P < 0.05, respectively). In a subset of patients with a history of cryptorchidism (n = 8), M540 bodies were higher than in non-cryptorchid men (40.5 ± 14.8 versus 23.6 ± 18.2%; P < 0.02). A negative correlation was found between M540 and ultrasound testis volume (adj.r = -0.241, P < 0.05), whereas a positive association was found with testis inhomogeneity [HR = 1.06 (1.02-1.09); P = 0.002], hypoechogenicity [HR = 1.05 (1.01-1.08); P < 0.02] and FSH levels (adj.r = 0.309, P < 0.01). No relationships were found with CDU characteristic of the prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis and vas deferens. In a multivariate model, testis inhomogeneity and history of cryptorchidism were independently associated with M540 body levels (adj.r = 0.355, P < 0.01 and adj.r = 0.223, P < 0.05, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that at the threshold of 27%, M540 bodies discriminate subjects with testis inhomogeneity with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 73%.
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION
The increased M540 body semen levels in men with a history of cryptorchidism should be confirmed in a larger number of patients.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
M540 bodies may be considered a semen marker of altered testis function and thus their evaluation may be helpful in the diagnosis of male infertility.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)
This work was supported by grants from Ministry of University and Scientific Research (Prin project to E.B. and FIRB project to S.M.) and Regione Toscana (to G.F.).