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Cannabis affects people differently: inter-subject variation in the psychotogenic effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with healthy volunteers.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cannabis can induce transient psychotic symptoms, but not all users experience these adverse effects. We compared the neural response to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers in whom the drug did or did not induce acute psychotic symptoms. Method In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pseudorandomized design, 21 healthy men with minimal experience of cannabis were given either 10 mg THC or placebo, orally. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures were then recorded whilst they performed a go/no-go task.

RESULTS

The sample was subdivided on the basis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive score following administration of THC into transiently psychotic (TP; n = 11) and non-psychotic (NP; n = 10) groups. During the THC condition, TP subjects made more frequent inhibition errors than the NP group and showed differential activation relative to the NP group in the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left and right middle temporal gyri and in the right cerebellum. In these regions, THC had opposite effects on activation relative to placebo in the two groups. The TP group also showed less activation than the NP group in the right middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum, independent of the effects of THC.

CONCLUSIONS

In this first demonstration of inter-subject variability in sensitivity to the psychotogenic effects of THC, we found that the presence of acute psychotic symptoms was associated with a differential effect of THC on activation in the ventral and medial temporal cortex and cerebellum, suggesting that these regions mediate the effects of the drug on psychotic symptoms.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Section of Neuroimaging, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK. Zerrin.Atakan@kcl.ac.uk

    , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Psychological medicine 43:6 2013 Jun pg 1255-67

    MeSH

    Adult
    Brain
    Cerebellum
    Double-Blind Method
    Dronabinol
    Functional Neuroimaging
    Hallucinogens
    Healthy Volunteers
    Humans
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Male
    Parahippocampal Gyrus
    Psychoses, Substance-Induced
    Temporal Lobe
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23020923

    Citation

    Atakan, Z, et al. "Cannabis Affects People Differently: Inter-subject Variation in the Psychotogenic Effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study With Healthy Volunteers." Psychological Medicine, vol. 43, no. 6, 2013, pp. 1255-67.
    Atakan Z, Bhattacharyya S, Allen P, et al. Cannabis affects people differently: inter-subject variation in the psychotogenic effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with healthy volunteers. Psychol Med. 2013;43(6):1255-67.
    Atakan, Z., Bhattacharyya, S., Allen, P., Martín-Santos, R., Crippa, J. A., Borgwardt, S. J., ... McGuire, P. (2013). Cannabis affects people differently: inter-subject variation in the psychotogenic effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with healthy volunteers. Psychological Medicine, 43(6), pp. 1255-67. doi:10.1017/S0033291712001924.
    Atakan Z, et al. Cannabis Affects People Differently: Inter-subject Variation in the Psychotogenic Effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study With Healthy Volunteers. Psychol Med. 2013;43(6):1255-67. PubMed PMID: 23020923.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Cannabis affects people differently: inter-subject variation in the psychotogenic effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with healthy volunteers. AU - Atakan,Z, AU - Bhattacharyya,S, AU - Allen,P, AU - Martín-Santos,R, AU - Crippa,J A, AU - Borgwardt,S J, AU - Fusar-Poli,P, AU - Seal,M, AU - Sallis,H, AU - Stahl,D, AU - Zuardi,A W, AU - Rubia,K, AU - McGuire,P, Y1 - 2012/10/01/ PY - 2012/10/2/entrez PY - 2012/10/2/pubmed PY - 2013/12/27/medline SP - 1255 EP - 67 JF - Psychological medicine JO - Psychol Med VL - 43 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cannabis can induce transient psychotic symptoms, but not all users experience these adverse effects. We compared the neural response to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers in whom the drug did or did not induce acute psychotic symptoms. Method In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pseudorandomized design, 21 healthy men with minimal experience of cannabis were given either 10 mg THC or placebo, orally. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures were then recorded whilst they performed a go/no-go task. RESULTS: The sample was subdivided on the basis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive score following administration of THC into transiently psychotic (TP; n = 11) and non-psychotic (NP; n = 10) groups. During the THC condition, TP subjects made more frequent inhibition errors than the NP group and showed differential activation relative to the NP group in the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left and right middle temporal gyri and in the right cerebellum. In these regions, THC had opposite effects on activation relative to placebo in the two groups. The TP group also showed less activation than the NP group in the right middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum, independent of the effects of THC. CONCLUSIONS: In this first demonstration of inter-subject variability in sensitivity to the psychotogenic effects of THC, we found that the presence of acute psychotic symptoms was associated with a differential effect of THC on activation in the ventral and medial temporal cortex and cerebellum, suggesting that these regions mediate the effects of the drug on psychotic symptoms. SN - 1469-8978 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23020923/Cannabis_affects_people_differently:_inter_subject_variation_in_the_psychotogenic_effects_of_Δ9_tetrahydrocannabinol:_a_functional_magnetic_resonance_imaging_study_with_healthy_volunteers_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033291712001924/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -