Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012; 265(1):1-9TA
The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl(2)·4H(2)O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2weeks MnCl(2)·4H(2)O at two doses the following: 0.2mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions.