An infant born to a mother with gestational diabetes presenting with 49,XXXXY syndrome and renal agenesis-a case report.J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2012; 4(4):223-5JC
49,XXXXY is a rare sex chromosome polysomy with an incidence of 1 in 85 000 male births. It has a characteristic triad of mental retardation, skeletal malformation and hypogonadism. This is the first case report of a child with 49,XXXXY syndrome and renal agenesis. This child was referred for genetic testing at 14 years of age due to facial dysmorphism and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. He had coarse facial features, cryptorchidism of the right testis, genu valgus deformities, and patent ductus arteriosus which are known associations of 49,XXXXY syndrome. He also had agenesis of the right kidney, hydronephrosis of the left kidney with hydroureter which is not a known association of 49,XXXXY syndrome. The patient was the offspring of a mother with gestational diabetes. There is a strong correlation between maternal diabetes and congenital anomalies, especially renal and cardiovascular anomalies. Additionally, it has been noted that gestational diabetes increases the incidence of chromosomal aneuploidies. The teratogenic effects of maternal diabetes during embryogenesis may be the causative factor for the final phenotype of 49,XXXXY syndrome and renal agenesis.