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Dyslipidemia: management using optimal lipid-lowering therapy.
Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Oct; 46(10):1368-81.AP

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate current approaches and explore emerging research related to dyslipidemia management.

DATA SOURCES

MEDLINE (2004-April 2012) was searched for randomized controlled trials using the terms dyslipidemia and lipid-lowering therapy or statin (>1000 hits). Separate searches (MEDLINE, Google) identified meta-analyses (2010-2011), disease prevalence statistics, and current consensus guidelines (2004-July 2011). Additional references were identified from the publications reviewed.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION

English-language articles on large multicenter trials were evaluated.

DATA SYNTHESIS

National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines for the reduction of cardiovascular risk recommend the attainment of specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) target values, based on an individual's 10-year risk of coronary heart disease or global risk. For most patients unable to achieve recommended lipid level goals with therapeutic lifestyle changes, statins are the first option for treatment. Results of large, well-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that statins are effective in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diverse populations, including patients with diabetes and the elderly, and that intensive statin therapy provides more effective lipid goal attainment and significantly greater risk reduction in patients with coronary artery disease. Statin therapy is generally well tolerated but may increase the risk of myopathy. Statin use has been associated with increases in hepatic transaminases and an increased risk of diabetes, although the absolute risk of diabetes is low compared with the risk reduction benefit. Combination therapy including a statin may be appropriate for certain populations, but the risk reduction benefits of combination therapy remain unclear. Ezetimibe is an important treatment option for patients with hypercholesterolemia who do not tolerate intensive statin therapy. Although fibrates or niacin improves overall lipid profiles in patients with hypertriglyceridemia or dyslipidemia who are receiving statin therapy, their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular risk remains questionable and their use raises safety and tolerability concerns.

CONCLUSIONS

Intensifying lifestyle changes and statin dose should be utilized first in patients not achieving their LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University/Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA. itom@ohsu.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23032652

Citation

Ito, Matthew K.. "Dyslipidemia: Management Using Optimal Lipid-lowering Therapy." The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 46, no. 10, 2012, pp. 1368-81.
Ito MK. Dyslipidemia: management using optimal lipid-lowering therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46(10):1368-81.
Ito, M. K. (2012). Dyslipidemia: management using optimal lipid-lowering therapy. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 46(10), 1368-81. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1R127
Ito MK. Dyslipidemia: Management Using Optimal Lipid-lowering Therapy. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46(10):1368-81. PubMed PMID: 23032652.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dyslipidemia: management using optimal lipid-lowering therapy. A1 - Ito,Matthew K, Y1 - 2012/10/02/ PY - 2012/10/4/entrez PY - 2012/10/4/pubmed PY - 2013/3/1/medline SP - 1368 EP - 81 JF - The Annals of pharmacotherapy JO - Ann Pharmacother VL - 46 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current approaches and explore emerging research related to dyslipidemia management. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (2004-April 2012) was searched for randomized controlled trials using the terms dyslipidemia and lipid-lowering therapy or statin (>1000 hits). Separate searches (MEDLINE, Google) identified meta-analyses (2010-2011), disease prevalence statistics, and current consensus guidelines (2004-July 2011). Additional references were identified from the publications reviewed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language articles on large multicenter trials were evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS: National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines for the reduction of cardiovascular risk recommend the attainment of specific low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) target values, based on an individual's 10-year risk of coronary heart disease or global risk. For most patients unable to achieve recommended lipid level goals with therapeutic lifestyle changes, statins are the first option for treatment. Results of large, well-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that statins are effective in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diverse populations, including patients with diabetes and the elderly, and that intensive statin therapy provides more effective lipid goal attainment and significantly greater risk reduction in patients with coronary artery disease. Statin therapy is generally well tolerated but may increase the risk of myopathy. Statin use has been associated with increases in hepatic transaminases and an increased risk of diabetes, although the absolute risk of diabetes is low compared with the risk reduction benefit. Combination therapy including a statin may be appropriate for certain populations, but the risk reduction benefits of combination therapy remain unclear. Ezetimibe is an important treatment option for patients with hypercholesterolemia who do not tolerate intensive statin therapy. Although fibrates or niacin improves overall lipid profiles in patients with hypertriglyceridemia or dyslipidemia who are receiving statin therapy, their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular risk remains questionable and their use raises safety and tolerability concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Intensifying lifestyle changes and statin dose should be utilized first in patients not achieving their LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals. SN - 1542-6270 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23032652/Dyslipidemia:_management_using_optimal_lipid_lowering_therapy_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1345/aph.1R127?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -