Analysis of clinical and biochemical spectrum of Wilson disease patients.Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012 Jul-Sep; 55(3):365-9.IJ
BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Wilson disease (WD) is autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. Wilson disease patients usually suffer from hepatic or neuropsychiatric complications. The symptoms appear between ages five to 35 but it can vary from two years to 72 years.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study was carried out from June 2008 to November 2010. This study included nine families with eleven cases of WD to determine clinical presentation, diagnostic findings (including laboratory results) and liver histology. It included 11 patients who presented with hepatic manifestations and/or Neuropsychiatric manifestations and/or family history suggesting features of WD. Patients with hepatitis B and C and those with history of taking antipsychotic drugs were excluded from the study. Patient's data was included in a well designed performa. Liver function test, serum ceruloplasmin, serum copper, 24 hour urinary copper, blood complete picture were analyzed. Quantitative data such as age, hemoglobin etc were expressed as mean with ± SD and quantitative variables such as sex, movement disorders, hepatic involvement etc were expressed as frequency and percentage.
There were five male and six female patients with evidence of various manifestations here (i) hepatic in which they had only liver dysfunction (ii) hepatic and neurological (iii) neurological. The mean age of presentation was 8.7±3.92 years (range 4-19 years) and 45% were male patients. Decreased serum ceruloplasmin, enhanced 24-h urinary copper excretion and signs of chronic liver damage were confirmed in all patients and Kayser-Fleischer rings (KF rings) in 72% of patients. In severe WD patients, serum prothrombin activity was less than 50%, serum ceruloplasmin were low and serum copper levels were high than those in non-severe WD patients. High degree of suspicion leads to early treatment with good outcome.
The WD is rare but important cause of chronic liver disease. Clinical and biochemical analysis in cases of patients with unexplained liver disease with high degree of suspicion can lead to early treatment with good outcome.