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Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov; 96(5):977-88.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods.

OBJECTIVE

We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants.

DESIGN

The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual intake for dietary outcomes. Relative differences in dietary intake by SNAP participation were estimated with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and household food security.

RESULTS

Few low-income adults consumed recommended amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, fish, and nuts/seeds/legumes. Conversely, many low-income adults exceeded recommended limits for processed meats, sweets, and bakery desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. Approximately 13-22% of low-income adults did not meet any food and nutrient guidelines; virtually no adults met all of the guidelines. Compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 39% fewer whole grains (95% CI: -57%, -15%), 44% more 100% fruit juice (95% CI: 0%, 107%), 56% more potatoes (95% CI: 18%, 106%), 46% more red meat (95% CI: 4%, 106%), and, in women, 61% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 3%, 152%). SNAP participants also had lower dietary quality scores than did nonparticipants, as measured by a modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index.

CONCLUSION

Although the diets of all low-income adults need major improvement, SNAP participants in particular had lower-quality diets than did income-eligible nonparticipants.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. cindyleung@post.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23034960

Citation

Leung, Cindy W., et al. "Dietary Intake and Dietary Quality of Low-income Adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 96, no. 5, 2012, pp. 977-88.
Leung CW, Ding EL, Catalano PJ, et al. Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):977-88.
Leung, C. W., Ding, E. L., Catalano, P. J., Villamor, E., Rimm, E. B., & Willett, W. C. (2012). Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(5), 977-88. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.040014
Leung CW, et al. Dietary Intake and Dietary Quality of Low-income Adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):977-88. PubMed PMID: 23034960.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary intake and dietary quality of low-income adults in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. AU - Leung,Cindy W, AU - Ding,Eric L, AU - Catalano,Paul J, AU - Villamor,Eduardo, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Willett,Walter C, Y1 - 2012/10/03/ PY - 2012/10/5/entrez PY - 2012/10/5/pubmed PY - 2013/3/19/medline SP - 977 EP - 88 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 96 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. DESIGN: The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999-2008 NHANES. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the distributions of usual intake for dietary outcomes. Relative differences in dietary intake by SNAP participation were estimated with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and household food security. RESULTS: Few low-income adults consumed recommended amounts of whole grains, fruit, vegetables, fish, and nuts/seeds/legumes. Conversely, many low-income adults exceeded recommended limits for processed meats, sweets, and bakery desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. Approximately 13-22% of low-income adults did not meet any food and nutrient guidelines; virtually no adults met all of the guidelines. Compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 39% fewer whole grains (95% CI: -57%, -15%), 44% more 100% fruit juice (95% CI: 0%, 107%), 56% more potatoes (95% CI: 18%, 106%), 46% more red meat (95% CI: 4%, 106%), and, in women, 61% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 3%, 152%). SNAP participants also had lower dietary quality scores than did nonparticipants, as measured by a modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index. CONCLUSION: Although the diets of all low-income adults need major improvement, SNAP participants in particular had lower-quality diets than did income-eligible nonparticipants. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23034960/Dietary_intake_and_dietary_quality_of_low_income_adults_in_the_Supplemental_Nutrition_Assistance_Program_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.112.040014 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -