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Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica.
Pharm Biol 2013; 51(2):170-80PB

Abstract

CONTEXT

Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions.

OBJECTIVE

The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

RESULTS

The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p < 0.001; 67.92%) reduced the blood glucose level during GTT in Wistar rats with an effective dose of 300 mg/kg bw in dose-dependent studies. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis showed the presence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids in AEUD. Hexane Fraction-2 (HF2) exhibited both antiinflammatory activity (48.83% after 3 h), comparable to that of indomethacin (53.48%), and potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 31.25-250 µg/mL against all the tested strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed fatty acid esters and terpenes as the major constituents of HF2. Toxicity tests showed higher safety margin of all the solvent extracts with LC(50) > 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Limnology and Fisheries Laboratory, Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J & K, India. sabzar.cord@gmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23036051

Citation

Dar, Sabzar Ahmad, et al. "Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Urtica Dioica." Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 51, no. 2, 2013, pp. 170-80.
Dar SA, Ganai FA, Yousuf AR, et al. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica. Pharm Biol. 2013;51(2):170-80.
Dar, S. A., Ganai, F. A., Yousuf, A. R., Balkhi, M. U., Bhat, T. M., & Sharma, P. (2013). Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica. Pharmaceutical Biology, 51(2), pp. 170-80. doi:10.3109/13880209.2012.715172.
Dar SA, et al. Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Urtica Dioica. Pharm Biol. 2013;51(2):170-80. PubMed PMID: 23036051.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica. AU - Dar,Sabzar Ahmad, AU - Ganai,Farooq Ahmad, AU - Yousuf,Abdul Rehman, AU - Balkhi,Masood-Ul-Hassan, AU - Bhat,Towseef Mohsin, AU - Sharma,Poonam, Y1 - 2012/10/05/ PY - 2012/10/6/entrez PY - 2012/10/6/pubmed PY - 2013/6/29/medline SP - 170 EP - 80 JF - Pharmaceutical biology JO - Pharm Biol VL - 51 IS - 2 N2 - CONTEXT: Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. MATERIALS AND METHODS: U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p < 0.001; 67.92%) reduced the blood glucose level during GTT in Wistar rats with an effective dose of 300 mg/kg bw in dose-dependent studies. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis showed the presence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids in AEUD. Hexane Fraction-2 (HF2) exhibited both antiinflammatory activity (48.83% after 3 h), comparable to that of indomethacin (53.48%), and potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 31.25-250 µg/mL against all the tested strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed fatty acid esters and terpenes as the major constituents of HF2. Toxicity tests showed higher safety margin of all the solvent extracts with LC(50) > 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases. SN - 1744-5116 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23036051/Pharmacological_and_toxicological_evaluation_of_Urtica_dioica_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/13880209.2012.715172 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -