Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: a literature review with suggestions for future research.
Am J Infect Control 2013; 41(3):254-8AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The potential risks associated with "toilet plume" aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission.

METHODS

The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks.

RESULTS

The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized.

CONCLUSION

Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Oklahoma College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0901, USA. David-Johnson@ouhsc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23040490

Citation

Johnson, David L., et al. "Lifting the Lid On Toilet Plume Aerosol: a Literature Review With Suggestions for Future Research." American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 41, no. 3, 2013, pp. 254-8.
Johnson DL, Mead KR, Lynch RA, et al. Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: a literature review with suggestions for future research. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41(3):254-8.
Johnson, D. L., Mead, K. R., Lynch, R. A., & Hirst, D. V. (2013). Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: a literature review with suggestions for future research. American Journal of Infection Control, 41(3), pp. 254-8. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2012.04.330.
Johnson DL, et al. Lifting the Lid On Toilet Plume Aerosol: a Literature Review With Suggestions for Future Research. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41(3):254-8. PubMed PMID: 23040490.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Lifting the lid on toilet plume aerosol: a literature review with suggestions for future research. AU - Johnson,David L, AU - Mead,Kenneth R, AU - Lynch,Robert A, AU - Hirst,Deborah V L, Y1 - 2012/10/05/ PY - 2012/02/24/received PY - 2012/04/13/revised PY - 2012/04/14/accepted PY - 2012/10/9/entrez PY - 2012/10/9/pubmed PY - 2013/8/13/medline SP - 254 EP - 8 JF - American journal of infection control JO - Am J Infect Control VL - 41 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The potential risks associated with "toilet plume" aerosols produced by flush toilets is a subject of continuing study. This review examines the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosol generation and infectious disease transmission. METHODS: The peer-reviewed scientific literature was searched to identify articles related to aerosol production during toilet flushing, as well as epidemiologic studies examining the potential role of toilets in infectious disease outbreaks. RESULTS: The studies demonstrate that potentially infectious aerosols may be produced in substantial quantities during flushing. Aerosolization can continue through multiple flushes to expose subsequent toilet users. Some of the aerosols desiccate to become droplet nuclei and remain adrift in the air currents. However, no studies have yet clearly demonstrated or refuted toilet plume-related disease transmission, and the significance of the risk remains largely uncharacterized. CONCLUSION: Research suggests that toilet plume could play a contributory role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Additional research in multiple areas is warranted to assess the risks posed by toilet plume, especially within health care facilities. SN - 1527-3296 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23040490/abstract/Lifting_the_lid_on_toilet_plume_aerosol:_A_literature_review_with_suggestions_for_future_research_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-6553(12)00812-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -