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Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.
Int J Cardiol. 2013 Aug 20; 167(4):1126-33.IJ

Abstract

Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. amohadjel@yahoo.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Biography
Historical Article
Journal Article
Portrait
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23044431

Citation

Shoja, Mohammadali M., et al. "Leonardo Da Vinci's Studies of the Heart." International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 167, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1126-33.
Shoja MM, Agutter PS, Loukas M, et al. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167(4):1126-33.
Shoja, M. M., Agutter, P. S., Loukas, M., Benninger, B., Shokouhi, G., Namdar, H., Ghabili, K., Khalili, M., & Tubbs, R. S. (2013). Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. International Journal of Cardiology, 167(4), 1126-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.078
Shoja MM, et al. Leonardo Da Vinci's Studies of the Heart. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Aug 20;167(4):1126-33. PubMed PMID: 23044431.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. AU - Shoja,Mohammadali M, AU - Agutter,Paul S, AU - Loukas,Marios, AU - Benninger,Brion, AU - Shokouhi,Ghaffar, AU - Namdar,Husain, AU - Ghabili,Kamyar, AU - Khalili,Majid, AU - Tubbs,R Shane, Y1 - 2012/10/06/ PY - 2011/10/26/received PY - 2012/07/02/revised PY - 2012/09/15/accepted PY - 2012/10/10/entrez PY - 2012/10/10/pubmed PY - 2014/4/12/medline KW - Anatomy KW - Circulation KW - Heart KW - History KW - Vessel SP - 1126 EP - 33 JF - International journal of cardiology JO - Int J Cardiol VL - 167 IS - 4 N2 - Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology. SN - 1874-1754 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23044431/Leonardo_da_Vinci's_studies_of_the_heart_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -