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The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion--evidence in humans.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov; 96(5):1193S-203S.AJ

Abstract

β-Carotene is an important dietary source of vitamin A for humans. However, the bioavailability and vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene are highly variable and can be affected by food- and diet-related factors, including the food matrix, food-processing techniques, size of the dose of β-carotene, and the amounts of dietary fat, fiber, vitamin A, and other carotenoids in the diet as well as by characteristics of the target population, such as vitamin A status, nutrient deficiencies, gut integrity, and genetic polymorphisms associated with β-carotene metabolism. The absorption of β-carotene from plant sources ranges from 5% to 65% in humans. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene to vitamin A from plant sources range from 3.8:1 to 28:1, by weight. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene from biofortified Golden Rice or biofortified maize are 3.8:1 and 6.5:1, respectively, and are lower than ratios for vegetables that have more complex food matrices (10:1 to 28:1). The vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is likely to be context-specific and dependent on specific food- and diet-related factors and the health, nutritional, and genetic characteristics of human populations. Although the vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is highly variable, the provision of vegetable and fruit sources of β-carotene has significantly increased vitamin A status in women and children in community settings in developing countries; these results support the inclusion of dietary interventions with plant sources of β-carotene as a strategy for increasing vitamin A status in populations at risk of deficiency.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Program in International and Community Nutrition, Nutrition Department, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. mjhaskell@ucdavis.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23053560

Citation

Haskell, Marjorie J.. "The Challenge to Reach Nutritional Adequacy for Vitamin A: Β-carotene Bioavailability and Conversion--evidence in Humans." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 96, no. 5, 2012, 1193S-203S.
Haskell MJ. The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion--evidence in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):1193S-203S.
Haskell, M. J. (2012). The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion--evidence in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(5), 1193S-203S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.034850
Haskell MJ. The Challenge to Reach Nutritional Adequacy for Vitamin A: Β-carotene Bioavailability and Conversion--evidence in Humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):1193S-203S. PubMed PMID: 23053560.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion--evidence in humans. A1 - Haskell,Marjorie J, Y1 - 2012/10/10/ PY - 2012/10/12/entrez PY - 2012/10/12/pubmed PY - 2013/3/19/medline SP - 1193S EP - 203S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 96 IS - 5 N2 - β-Carotene is an important dietary source of vitamin A for humans. However, the bioavailability and vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene are highly variable and can be affected by food- and diet-related factors, including the food matrix, food-processing techniques, size of the dose of β-carotene, and the amounts of dietary fat, fiber, vitamin A, and other carotenoids in the diet as well as by characteristics of the target population, such as vitamin A status, nutrient deficiencies, gut integrity, and genetic polymorphisms associated with β-carotene metabolism. The absorption of β-carotene from plant sources ranges from 5% to 65% in humans. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene to vitamin A from plant sources range from 3.8:1 to 28:1, by weight. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene from biofortified Golden Rice or biofortified maize are 3.8:1 and 6.5:1, respectively, and are lower than ratios for vegetables that have more complex food matrices (10:1 to 28:1). The vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is likely to be context-specific and dependent on specific food- and diet-related factors and the health, nutritional, and genetic characteristics of human populations. Although the vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is highly variable, the provision of vegetable and fruit sources of β-carotene has significantly increased vitamin A status in women and children in community settings in developing countries; these results support the inclusion of dietary interventions with plant sources of β-carotene as a strategy for increasing vitamin A status in populations at risk of deficiency. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23053560/The_challenge_to_reach_nutritional_adequacy_for_vitamin_A:_β_carotene_bioavailability_and_conversion__evidence_in_humans_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.112.034850 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -