Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma.
J Behav Med. 2013 Dec; 36(6):632-40.JB

Abstract

The use of physical punishment for children is associated with poor psychological and behavioral outcomes, but the causal pathway is controversial, and the effects on later physical health unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of asthma, cancer, and cardiac patients (150 in each category, 75 male) recruited from outpatient clinics and 250 healthy controls (125 male). All participants were 40-60 years old and citizens of Saudi Arabia, where the use of beating and insults is an acceptable parenting style. Demographic data and recalled frequency of beatings and insults as a child were assessed on an 8-point scale. Beating and insults were highly correlated (ρ = 0.846). Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between the disease and healthy groups. After controlling for differences, more frequent beating (once or more per month) and insults were associated with a significantly increased risk for cancer (RR = 1.7), cardiac disease (RR = 1.3) and asthma (RR = 1.6), with evidence of increased risk for cancer and asthma with beating frequency of once every 6 months or more. Our results show that a threatening parenting style of beating and insults is associated with increased risk for somatic disease, possibly because this form of parenting induces stress. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that child abuse and other early life stressors adversely affect adult somatic health, but provide evidence that the pathogenic effects occur also with chronic minor stress. A stress-inducing parenting style, even when normative, has long term adverse health consequences.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK, M.Hyland@plymouth.ac.uk.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23054177

Citation

Hyland, Michael E., et al. "Beating and Insulting Children as a Risk for Adult Cancer, Cardiac Disease and Asthma." Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 36, no. 6, 2013, pp. 632-40.
Hyland ME, Alkhalaf AM, Whalley B. Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma. J Behav Med. 2013;36(6):632-40.
Hyland, M. E., Alkhalaf, A. M., & Whalley, B. (2013). Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 36(6), 632-40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-012-9457-6
Hyland ME, Alkhalaf AM, Whalley B. Beating and Insulting Children as a Risk for Adult Cancer, Cardiac Disease and Asthma. J Behav Med. 2013;36(6):632-40. PubMed PMID: 23054177.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma. AU - Hyland,Michael E, AU - Alkhalaf,Ahmed M, AU - Whalley,Ben, Y1 - 2012/09/29/ PY - 2012/04/30/received PY - 2012/09/20/accepted PY - 2012/10/12/entrez PY - 2012/10/12/pubmed PY - 2014/7/11/medline SP - 632 EP - 40 JF - Journal of behavioral medicine JO - J Behav Med VL - 36 IS - 6 N2 - The use of physical punishment for children is associated with poor psychological and behavioral outcomes, but the causal pathway is controversial, and the effects on later physical health unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of asthma, cancer, and cardiac patients (150 in each category, 75 male) recruited from outpatient clinics and 250 healthy controls (125 male). All participants were 40-60 years old and citizens of Saudi Arabia, where the use of beating and insults is an acceptable parenting style. Demographic data and recalled frequency of beatings and insults as a child were assessed on an 8-point scale. Beating and insults were highly correlated (ρ = 0.846). Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between the disease and healthy groups. After controlling for differences, more frequent beating (once or more per month) and insults were associated with a significantly increased risk for cancer (RR = 1.7), cardiac disease (RR = 1.3) and asthma (RR = 1.6), with evidence of increased risk for cancer and asthma with beating frequency of once every 6 months or more. Our results show that a threatening parenting style of beating and insults is associated with increased risk for somatic disease, possibly because this form of parenting induces stress. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that child abuse and other early life stressors adversely affect adult somatic health, but provide evidence that the pathogenic effects occur also with chronic minor stress. A stress-inducing parenting style, even when normative, has long term adverse health consequences. SN - 1573-3521 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23054177/full_citation/Beating_and_insulting_children_as_a_risk_for_adult_cancer_cardiac_disease_and_asthma_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-012-9457-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -