The risk of lung cancer related to dietary intake of flavonoids.Nutr Cancer. 2012; 64(7):964-74.NC
It has been hypothesized that flavonoids in foods and beverages may reduce cancer risk through antioxidation, inhibition of inflammation, and other antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties. We examined associations between intake of 5 flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols, and flavanones) and lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada (1061 cases and 1425 controls). Flavonoid intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire that assessed diet 2 yr prior to diagnosis (cases) or interview (controls). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Overall, total flavonoid intake was not associated with lung cancer risk, the effect being similar regardless of sex and smoking level. However, low flavonoid intake from food, but not from beverages, was associated with an increased risk. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of intake were 0.63 (0.47-0.85) for total flavonoids, 0.82 (0.61-1.11) for anthocyanidins, 0.67 (0.50-0.90) for flavan-3-ols, 0.68 (0.50-0.93) for flavones, 0.62 (0.45-0.84) for flavonols, and 0.70 (0.53-0.94) for flavanones. An inverse association with total flavone and flavanone intake was observed for squamous cell carcinoma but not adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, low flavonoid intake from food may increase lung cancer risk.