Effect of cyanobacteria on immune function of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) via chronic exposure in diet.Chemosphere. 2013 Jan; 90(3):1167-76.C
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. Microcystins (MCs) released during cyanobacterial blooms exert toxicity on fish. Up to now, immunotoxicity of MCs on fish has been rarely reported. The present study investigated immune response of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to cyanobacteria via chronic exposure in diet. Fish were fed with diets containing 20% (low dose group) and 40% (high dose group) of cyanobacteria lyophilized powder. After exposure of 30 d, a batch of assays was determined for assessing immunotoxicity of MCs. The head kidney and spleen indexes significantly increased in high dose group. Blood nitroblue tetrazolium activity in high dose group was nearly twice as much as that in control group with no cyanobacteria additive. Marked haemorrhage and hyperemia were observed in kidney and spleen in high dose group. The edematous mitochondria, deformation of the nucleus and compaction of chromatin occurred in lymphocytes of head kidney and spleen in both cyanobacteria groups. Lysozyme activity showed an obvious increase in low dose group but a sharp decrease in high dose group. Significant increase of macrophage bactericidal activity was detected in low dose group. The present findings indicate that via chronic diet exposure of different cyanobacteria levels, fish exhibit various immune responses. Fish immunity tends to proceed toward the direction of immunostimulative response at low MCs concentrations but toward the trend of immunosuppressive answer at high MCs concentrations.