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Fixed, free, and fixed: the fickle phylogeny of extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and their Permian-Triassic origin.
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013 Jan; 66(1):161-81.MP

Abstract

Although the status of Crinoidea (sea lilies and featherstars) as sister group to all other living echinoderms is well-established, relationships among crinoids, particularly extant forms, are debated. All living species are currently placed in Articulata, which is generally accepted as the only crinoid group to survive the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Recent classifications have recognized five major extant taxa: Isocrinida, Hyocrinida, Bourgueticrinina, Comatulidina and Cyrtocrinida, plus several smaller groups with uncertain taxonomic status, e.g., Guillecrinus, Proisocrinus and Caledonicrinus. Here we infer the phylogeny of extant Crinoidea using three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes from 59 crinoid terminals that span the majority of extant crinoid diversity. Although there is poor support for some of the more basal nodes, and some tree topologies varied with the data used and mode of analysis, we obtain several robust results. Cyrtocrinida, Hyocrinida, Isocrinida are all recovered as clades, but two stalked crinoid groups, Bourgueticrinina and Guillecrinina, nest among the featherstars, lending support to an argument that they are paedomorphic forms. Hence, they are reduced to families within Comatulida. Proisocrinus is clearly shown to be part of Isocrinida, and Caledonicrinus may not be a bourgueticrinid. Among comatulids, tree topologies show little congruence with current taxonomy, indicating that much systematic revision is required. Relaxed molecular clock analyses with eight fossil calibration points recover Articulata with a median date to the most recent common ancestor at 231-252mya in the Middle to Upper Triassic. These analyses tend to support the hypothesis that the group is a radiation from a small clade that passed through the Permian-Triassic extinction event rather than several lineages that survived. Our tree topologies show various scenarios for the evolution of stalks and cirri in Articulata, so it is clear that further data and taxon sampling are needed to recover a more robust phylogeny of the group.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. grouse@ucsd.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23063883

Citation

Rouse, Greg W., et al. "Fixed, Free, and Fixed: the Fickle Phylogeny of Extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and Their Permian-Triassic Origin." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 66, no. 1, 2013, pp. 161-81.
Rouse GW, Jermiin LS, Wilson NG, et al. Fixed, free, and fixed: the fickle phylogeny of extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and their Permian-Triassic origin. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66(1):161-81.
Rouse, G. W., Jermiin, L. S., Wilson, N. G., Eeckhaut, I., Lanterbecq, D., Oji, T., Young, C. M., Browning, T., Cisternas, P., Helgen, L. E., Stuckey, M., & Messing, C. G. (2013). Fixed, free, and fixed: the fickle phylogeny of extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and their Permian-Triassic origin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66(1), 161-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.09.018
Rouse GW, et al. Fixed, Free, and Fixed: the Fickle Phylogeny of Extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and Their Permian-Triassic Origin. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66(1):161-81. PubMed PMID: 23063883.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fixed, free, and fixed: the fickle phylogeny of extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and their Permian-Triassic origin. AU - Rouse,Greg W, AU - Jermiin,Lars S, AU - Wilson,Nerida G, AU - Eeckhaut,Igor, AU - Lanterbecq,Deborah, AU - Oji,Tatsuo, AU - Young,Craig M, AU - Browning,Teena, AU - Cisternas,Paula, AU - Helgen,Lauren E, AU - Stuckey,Michelle, AU - Messing,Charles G, Y1 - 2012/10/11/ PY - 2012/04/06/received PY - 2012/08/13/revised PY - 2012/09/17/accepted PY - 2012/10/16/entrez PY - 2012/10/16/pubmed PY - 2013/4/23/medline SP - 161 EP - 81 JF - Molecular phylogenetics and evolution JO - Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. VL - 66 IS - 1 N2 - Although the status of Crinoidea (sea lilies and featherstars) as sister group to all other living echinoderms is well-established, relationships among crinoids, particularly extant forms, are debated. All living species are currently placed in Articulata, which is generally accepted as the only crinoid group to survive the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Recent classifications have recognized five major extant taxa: Isocrinida, Hyocrinida, Bourgueticrinina, Comatulidina and Cyrtocrinida, plus several smaller groups with uncertain taxonomic status, e.g., Guillecrinus, Proisocrinus and Caledonicrinus. Here we infer the phylogeny of extant Crinoidea using three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes from 59 crinoid terminals that span the majority of extant crinoid diversity. Although there is poor support for some of the more basal nodes, and some tree topologies varied with the data used and mode of analysis, we obtain several robust results. Cyrtocrinida, Hyocrinida, Isocrinida are all recovered as clades, but two stalked crinoid groups, Bourgueticrinina and Guillecrinina, nest among the featherstars, lending support to an argument that they are paedomorphic forms. Hence, they are reduced to families within Comatulida. Proisocrinus is clearly shown to be part of Isocrinida, and Caledonicrinus may not be a bourgueticrinid. Among comatulids, tree topologies show little congruence with current taxonomy, indicating that much systematic revision is required. Relaxed molecular clock analyses with eight fossil calibration points recover Articulata with a median date to the most recent common ancestor at 231-252mya in the Middle to Upper Triassic. These analyses tend to support the hypothesis that the group is a radiation from a small clade that passed through the Permian-Triassic extinction event rather than several lineages that survived. Our tree topologies show various scenarios for the evolution of stalks and cirri in Articulata, so it is clear that further data and taxon sampling are needed to recover a more robust phylogeny of the group. SN - 1095-9513 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23063883/Fixed_free_and_fixed:_the_fickle_phylogeny_of_extant_Crinoidea__Echinodermata__and_their_Permian_Triassic_origin_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1055-7903(12)00375-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -