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Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans.
Phytomedicine. 2012 Dec 15; 20(1):40-6.P

Abstract

This study evaluated the absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavonolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin isomers (all together known as silymarin) in humans. Fourteen volunteers consumed an extract of milk thistle and urine was collected up to 48 h after consumption. Thirty-one metabolites were identified in urine by means of HPLC-MS/MS, monoglucuronides being the most common excreted form, followed by sulphate-glucuronides and diglucuronides, respectively. The excretion of monoglucuronides peaked 2 h after consumption, whereas sulphate-glucuronide and diglucuronide excretion peaked at 8 h. The bioavailability of milk thistle flavanolignans was 0.45±0.28% (mean±SD). In conclusion, milk thistle flavonolignans are extensively modified after ingestion and recovered in urine as sulpho- and glucuronyl-conjugates, indicating a strong affinity for hepatic phase II enzymes. All future studies (in vitro and in vivo) dealing with the effects of milk thistle should start by considering the modification of its flavonolignans after ingestion by humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23072776

Citation

Calani, Luca, et al. "Absorption and Metabolism of Milk Thistle Flavanolignans in Humans." Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 1, 2012, pp. 40-6.
Calani L, Brighenti F, Bruni R, et al. Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans. Phytomedicine. 2012;20(1):40-6.
Calani, L., Brighenti, F., Bruni, R., & Del Rio, D. (2012). Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans. Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 20(1), 40-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2012.09.004
Calani L, et al. Absorption and Metabolism of Milk Thistle Flavanolignans in Humans. Phytomedicine. 2012 Dec 15;20(1):40-6. PubMed PMID: 23072776.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavanolignans in humans. AU - Calani,Luca, AU - Brighenti,Furio, AU - Bruni,Renato, AU - Del Rio,Daniele, Y1 - 2012/10/13/ PY - 2012/04/10/received PY - 2012/09/05/accepted PY - 2012/10/18/entrez PY - 2012/10/18/pubmed PY - 2013/5/4/medline SP - 40 EP - 6 JF - Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology JO - Phytomedicine VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - This study evaluated the absorption and metabolism of milk thistle flavonolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin and isosilybin isomers (all together known as silymarin) in humans. Fourteen volunteers consumed an extract of milk thistle and urine was collected up to 48 h after consumption. Thirty-one metabolites were identified in urine by means of HPLC-MS/MS, monoglucuronides being the most common excreted form, followed by sulphate-glucuronides and diglucuronides, respectively. The excretion of monoglucuronides peaked 2 h after consumption, whereas sulphate-glucuronide and diglucuronide excretion peaked at 8 h. The bioavailability of milk thistle flavanolignans was 0.45±0.28% (mean±SD). In conclusion, milk thistle flavonolignans are extensively modified after ingestion and recovered in urine as sulpho- and glucuronyl-conjugates, indicating a strong affinity for hepatic phase II enzymes. All future studies (in vitro and in vivo) dealing with the effects of milk thistle should start by considering the modification of its flavonolignans after ingestion by humans. SN - 1618-095X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23072776/Absorption_and_metabolism_of_milk_thistle_flavanolignans_in_humans_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0944-7113(12)00314-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -