Hyperkalemia of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in hemodialysis: a meta-analysis.J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2012 Oct; 32(5):785-792.JH
The safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in hemodialysis (HD) patients was evaluated. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, some databases of clinical trial registries, grey literatures, other reference lists of eligible articles and review articles for the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on comparison of ACEIs/ARBs or placebo in HD patients were retrieved. RCTs reporting the risk of hyperkalemia by using ACEIs/ARBs in HD patients were selected. Eight articles met the eligibility criteria and were subjected to meta-analysis by using the Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 4.2 software package. The results showed that there was no significant difference in hyperkalemia in HD patients between ACEIs or ARBs group and control group (ACEIs vs. control: RD=0.03, 95% CI=-0.13-0.18, Z=0.34, P=0.73; ARBs vs. control: RD=-0.02, 95% CI=-0.07-0.03, Z=0.75, P=0.45). However, there was no significant difference in the serum potassium between ACEIs or ARBs group and control group in HD patients (ACEIs vs. control: WMD=0.10, 95% CI=0.06-0.15, Z=4.64, P<0.00001; ARBs vs. control: WMD=-0.24, 95% CI=-0.37-0.11, Z=3.58, P=0.0003). The use of ACEIs or ARBs could not cause an increased risk of hyperkalemia in HD patients, however the serum potassium could be increased with use of ACEIs in HD patients. Therefore the serum potassium concentration should still be closely monitored when ACEIs are taken during the maintenance HD.