Behavioural interventions for urinary incontinence in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis.Ont Health Technol Assess Ser 2008; 8(3):1-52OH
In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry's newly released Aging at Home Strategy.After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person's transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series.AGING IN THE COMMUNITY: Summary of Evidence-Based AnalysesPrevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisBehavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisCaregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based AnalysisSocial Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based AnalysisThe Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for the treatment and management of urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling seniors.
TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Urinary incontinence defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine" was identified as 1 of the key predictors in a senior's transition from independent community living to admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. Urinary incontinence is a health problem that affects a substantial proportion of Ontario's community-dwelling seniors (and indirectly affects caregivers), impacting their health, functioning, well-being and quality of life. Based on Canadian studies, prevalence estimates range from 9% to 30% for senior men and nearly double from 19% to 55% for senior women. The direct and indirect costs associated with UI are substantial. It is estimated that the total annual costs in Canada are $1.5 billion (Cdn), and that each year a senior living at home will spend $1,000 to $1,500 on incontinence supplies. Interventions to treat and manage UI can be classified into broad categories which include lifestyle modification, behavioural techniques, medications, devices (e.g., continence pessaries), surgical interventions and adjunctive measures (e.g., absorbent products). The focus of this review is behavioural interventions, since they are commonly the first line of treatment considered in seniors given that they are the least invasive options with no reported side effects, do not limit future treatment options, and can be applied in combination with other therapies. In addition, many seniors would not be ideal candidates for other types of interventions involving more risk, such as surgical measures.
It is recognized that the terms "senior" and "elderly" carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable.
DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGY/THERAPY
Behavioural interventions can be divided into 2 categories according to the target population: caregiver-dependent techniques and patient-directed techniques. Caregiver-dependent techniques (also known as toileting assistance) are targeted at medically complex, frail individuals living at home with the assistance of a caregiver, who tends to be a family member. These seniors may also have cognitive deficits and/or motor deficits. A health care professional trains the senior's caregiver to deliver an intervention such as prompted voiding, habit retraining, or timed voiding. The health care professional who trains the caregiver is commonly a nurse or a nurse with advanced training in the management of UI, such as a nurse continence advisor (NCA) or a clinical nurse specialist (CNS). The second category of behavioural interventions consists of patient-directed techniques targeted towards mobile, motivated seniors. Seniors in this population are cognitively able, free from any major physical deficits, and motivated to regain and/or improve their continence. A nurse or a nurse with advanced training in UI management, such as an NCA or CNS, delivers the patient-directed techniques. These are often provided as multicomponent interventions including a combination of bladder training techniques, pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), education on bladder control strategies, and self-monitoring. Pelvic floor muscle training, defined as a program of repeated pelvic floor muscle contractions taught and supervised by a health care professional, may be employed as part of a multicomponent intervention or in isolation. Education is a large component of both caregiver-dependent and patient-directed behavioural interventions, and patient and/or caregiver involvement as well as continued practice strongly affect the success of treatment. Incontinence products, which include a large variety of pads and devices for effective containment of urine, may be used in conjunction with behavioural techniques at any point in the patient's management.
EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS METHODS
A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of caregiver-dependent and patient-directed behavioural interventions for the treatment of UI in community-dwelling seniors (see Appendix 1).
Are caregiver-dependent behavioural interventions effective in improving UI in medically complex, frail community-dwelling seniors with/without cognitive deficits and/or motor deficits?Are patient-directed behavioural interventions effective in improving UI in mobile, motivated community-dwelling seniors?Are behavioural interventions delivered by NCAs or CNSs in a clinic setting effective in improving incontinence outcomes in community-dwelling seniors?
ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF EVIDENCE
The quality of the evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE methodology and GRADE Working Group. As per GRADE the following definitions apply: HighFurther research is very unlikely to change confidence in the estimate of effect.ModerateFurther research is likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate.LowFurther research is very likely to have an important impact on confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate.Very LowAny estimate of effect is very uncertain
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Executive Summary Table 1 summarizes the results of the analysis. The available evidence was limited by considerable variation in study populations and in the type and severity of UI for studies examining both caregiver-directed and patient-directed interventions. The UI literature frequently is limited to reporting subjective outcome measures such as patient observations and symptoms. The primary outcome of interest, admission to a LTC home, was not reported in the UI literature. The number of eligible studies was low, and there were limited data on long-term follow-up. Executive Summary Table 1:Summary of Evidence on Behavioural Interventions for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling SeniorsInterventionTarget PopulationInterventionsConclusionsGRADE quality of the evidence1. Caregiver-dependent techniques (toileting assistance)Medically complex, frail individuals at home with/without cognitive deficits and/or motor deficitsDelivered by informal caregivers who are trained by a nurse or a nurse with specialized UI training (NCA/CNS)Prompted voidingHabit retrainingTimed voidingThere is no evidence of effectiveness for habit retraining (n=1 study) and timed voiding (n=1 study).Prompted voiding may be effective, but effectiveness is difficult to substantiate because of an inadequately powered study (n=1 study).Resource implications and caregiver burden (usually on an informal caregiver) should be considered.Low2. Patient-directed techniquesMobile, motivated seniorsDelivered by a nurse or a nurse with specialized UI training (NCA/CNS)Multicomponent behavioural interventionsInclude a combination ofBladder trainingPFMT (with or without biofeedback)Bladder control strategiesEducationSelf-monitoringSignificant reduction in the mean number of incontinent episodes per week (n=5 studies, WMD 3.63, 95% CI, 2.07-5.19)Significant improvement in patient's perception of UI (n=3 studies, OR 4.15, 95% CI, 2.70-6.37)Suggestive beneficial impact on patient's health-related quality of lifeModerate PFMT aloneSignificant reduction in the mean number of incontinent episodes per week (n=1 study, WMD 10.50, 95% CI, 4.30-16.70)Moderate3. Behavioural interventions led by an NCA/CNS in a clinic settingCommunity-dwelling seniorsBehavioural interventions led by NCA/CNSOverall, effective in improving incontinence outcomes (n=3 RCTs + 1 Ontario-based before/after study)Moderate*CI refers to confidence interval; CNS, clinical nurse specialist; NCA, nurse continence advisor; PFMT, pelvic floor muscle training; RCT, randomized controlled trial; WMD, weighted mean difference; UI, urinary incontinence.
A budget impact analysis was conducted to forecast costs for caregiver-dependent and patient-directed multicomponent behavioural techniques delivered by NCAs, and PFMT alone delivered by physiotherapists. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)