Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Japanese buff-tip moth, Phalera flavescens (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae).Genet Mol Res. 2012 Dec 06; 11(4):4213-25.GM
We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Phalera flavescens. The mitogenome is 15,659 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (atp6, atp8, cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, cob), two ribosomal RNAs (rrnS and rrnL), 22 transfer RNAs and an AT-rich region, a putative control region (D-loop). Gene order and orientation were found to be identical to those of other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. All 13 protein-coding genes start with the common codon ATN, except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine of the 13 protein-coding genes stop with codon TAA, while the cox1, cox2, nad5, and nad4 genes stop with the single nucleotide T. All tRNA genes can be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for trnS1, which loses the ''DHU'' arm. Six overlapping sequences totaling 20 bp (1-8 bp for each sequence) and 16 intergenic spacer sequences, totaling 276 bp (1-58 bp for each sequence) are scattered throughout the genome; the largest intergenic spacer is located between the trnQ and nad2 genes. A microsatellite-like structure (AT)(6)ACC(AT)(6) and 16-bp poly-T elements preceded by the ATTTA motif are present in the D-loop region. Additionally, unexpectedly, an extra 190-bp insertion, with unknown function, was found in the small subunit rRNA gene (rrnS); this gene is the longest known (1020 bp) among all of the Lepidoptera.