Protein binding of the contraceptive steroids gestodene, 3-keto-desogestrel and ethinylestradiol in human serum.J Steroid Biochem. 1990 Feb; 35(2):313-8.JS
The protein binding of ethinylestradiol (EE2), gestodene (GEST) and 3-keto-desogestrel (KDG) has been determined by ultrafiltration in the serum of women who had either taken a gestodene (n = 37) or desogestrel (n = 28) containing oral contraceptive for a time period of at least 3 months. GEST and KDG were analyzed in individual serum pools whereas EE2 was repeatedly measured in two serum pools, each one representing one treatment group. The respective free fractions of the three steroids were 0.6 +/- 0.1% (GEST), 2.5 +/- 0.2% (KDG), 1.7 +/- 0.6% (EE2, in the gestodene-group) and 1.5 +/- 0.2% (EE2, in the desogestrel-group). EE2 was exclusively bound to albumin, whereas GEST and KDG were also bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The distribution of the two progestins over the serum binding proteins was determined after heat-treatment of serum samples. For GEST, the contribution of albumin and SHBG was 24.1 +/- 9.1 and 75.3 +/- 9.1%, respectively and for KDG it was 65.9 +/- 11.9 and 31.6 +/- 12.0%, respectively. SHBG and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were measured in the serum samples obtained from both treatment groups. In the gestodene-group 180 +/- 61 nmol/l (SHBG) and 89 +/- 13 mg/l (CBG) were measured, the corresponding values in the desogestrel-group were 226 +/- 64 nmol/l (SHBG) and 93 +/- 14 mg/l (CBG). SHBG concentrations were correlated with the total concentration of GEST and its free fraction and a positive (r = 0.395) and negative (r = -0.491) correlation respectively was found. Only a weak negative correlation (r = -0.291) was found for SHBG and the free fraction of KDG in the serum. These data demonstrate that the three contraceptive steroids EE2, GEST and KDG were all bound extensively to serum proteins, however, with pronounced differences concerning their distribution over the various binding proteins.