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Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Center for Human Experimental Therapeutics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA. Karl.kieburtz@chet.rochester.edu

    Source

    MeSH

    Age Factors
    Brain Injuries
    Environment
    Environmental Exposure
    Exercise
    Gene-Environment Interaction
    Humans
    Parkinson Disease
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23097348

    Citation

    Kieburtz, Karl, and Kathryn B. Wunderle. "Parkinson's Disease: Evidence for Environmental Risk Factors." Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, vol. 28, no. 1, 2013, pp. 8-13.
    Kieburtz K, Wunderle KB. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors. Mov Disord. 2013;28(1):8-13.
    Kieburtz, K., & Wunderle, K. B. (2013). Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 28(1), pp. 8-13. doi:10.1002/mds.25150.
    Kieburtz K, Wunderle KB. Parkinson's Disease: Evidence for Environmental Risk Factors. Mov Disord. 2013;28(1):8-13. PubMed PMID: 23097348.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors. AU - Kieburtz,Karl, AU - Wunderle,Kathryn B, Y1 - 2012/10/24/ PY - 2012/01/27/received PY - 2012/07/20/revised PY - 2012/07/24/accepted PY - 2012/10/26/entrez PY - 2012/10/26/pubmed PY - 2013/8/22/medline SP - 8 EP - 13 JF - Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society JO - Mov. Disord. VL - 28 IS - 1 N2 - Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions. SN - 1531-8257 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23097348/Parkinson's_disease:_evidence_for_environmental_risk_factors_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.25150 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -