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Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.
Mov Disord 2013; 28(1):8-13MD

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Human Experimental Therapeutics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA. Karl.kieburtz@chet.rochester.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23097348

Citation

Kieburtz, Karl, and Kathryn B. Wunderle. "Parkinson's Disease: Evidence for Environmental Risk Factors." Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, vol. 28, no. 1, 2013, pp. 8-13.
Kieburtz K, Wunderle KB. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors. Mov Disord. 2013;28(1):8-13.
Kieburtz, K., & Wunderle, K. B. (2013). Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 28(1), pp. 8-13. doi:10.1002/mds.25150.
Kieburtz K, Wunderle KB. Parkinson's Disease: Evidence for Environmental Risk Factors. Mov Disord. 2013;28(1):8-13. PubMed PMID: 23097348.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors. AU - Kieburtz,Karl, AU - Wunderle,Kathryn B, Y1 - 2012/10/24/ PY - 2012/01/27/received PY - 2012/07/20/revised PY - 2012/07/24/accepted PY - 2012/10/26/entrez PY - 2012/10/26/pubmed PY - 2013/8/22/medline SP - 8 EP - 13 JF - Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society JO - Mov. Disord. VL - 28 IS - 1 N2 - Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions. SN - 1531-8257 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23097348/Parkinson's_disease:_evidence_for_environmental_risk_factors_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.25150 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -