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Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study.
BMJ 2012; 345:e7093BMJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life.

DESIGN

The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950.

SETTING

Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

PARTICIPANTS

Smoking status for 27,311 men and 40,662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers.

RESULTS

Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it.

CONCLUSIONS

The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23100333

Citation

Sakata, R, et al. "Impact of Smoking On Mortality and Life Expectancy in Japanese Smokers: a Prospective Cohort Study." BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), vol. 345, 2012, pp. e7093.
Sakata R, McGale P, Grant EJ, et al. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012;345:e7093.
Sakata, R., McGale, P., Grant, E. J., Ozasa, K., Peto, R., & Darby, S. C. (2012). Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 345, pp. e7093. doi:10.1136/bmj.e7093.
Sakata R, et al. Impact of Smoking On Mortality and Life Expectancy in Japanese Smokers: a Prospective Cohort Study. BMJ. 2012 Oct 25;345:e7093. PubMed PMID: 23100333.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study. AU - Sakata,R, AU - McGale,P, AU - Grant,E J, AU - Ozasa,K, AU - Peto,R, AU - Darby,S C, Y1 - 2012/10/25/ PY - 2012/10/27/entrez PY - 2012/10/27/pubmed PY - 2012/12/28/medline SP - e7093 EP - e7093 JF - BMJ (Clinical research ed.) JO - BMJ VL - 345 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. DESIGN: The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. SETTING: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Smoking status for 27,311 men and 40,662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. RESULTS: Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. CONCLUSIONS: The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. SN - 1756-1833 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23100333/Impact_of_smoking_on_mortality_and_life_expectancy_in_Japanese_smokers:_a_prospective_cohort_study_ L2 - http://www.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=23100333 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -