Pretreatment with brain natriuretic peptide reduces skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress after ischemia-reperfusion.J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013 Jan 15; 114(2):172-9.JA
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) reduces the extent of myocardial infarction. We aimed to determine whether BNP may reduce skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress through mitochondrial K(ATP) (mK(ATP)) channel opening after ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: sham, 3-h leg ischemia followed by 2-h reperfusion (IR), pretreatment with BNP, and pretreatment with 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, an mK(ATP) channel blocker, before BNP. Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities of gastrocnemius muscles were determined using glutamate-malate (V(max)), succinate (V(succ)), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride ascorbate (V(TMPD/asc)). Apoptosis (Bax-to-Bcl2 mRNA ratio and caspase-3 activity) and oxidative stress (dihydroethidium staining) were also assessed. Compared with the sham group, IR significantly decreased V(max), reflecting complex I, II, and IV activities (-36%, 3.7 ± 0.3 vs. 5.8 ± 0.2 μmol O(2)·min(-1)·g dry wt(-1), P < 0.01), and V(TMPD/asc), reflecting complex IV activity (-37%, 8.6 ± 0.8 vs. 13.7 ± 0.9 μmol O(2)·min(-1)·g dry wt(-1), P < 0.01). IR increased Bax-to-Bcl2 ratio (+57%, 1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 0.7 ± 0.1, P < 0.05) and oxidative stress (+45%, 9,067 ± 935 vs. 6,249 ± 723 pixels, P > 0.05). BNP pretreatment reduced the above alterations, increasing V(max) (+38%, P < 0.05) and reducing Bax-to-Bcl2 ratio (-55%, P < 0.01) and oxidative stress (-58%, P < 0.01). BNP protection against deleterious IR effects on skeletal muscles was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid. Caspase-3 activities did not change significantly. Conversely, BNP injected during ischemia failed to protect against muscle injury. In addition to maintaining the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and possibly decreasing apoptosis, pretreatment with BNP protects skeletal muscle against IR-induced lesions, most likely by decreasing excessive production of radical oxygen species and opening mK(ATP) channels.