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Smoking and other risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cancer of the pancreas is a relatively rare, but highly fatal cancer worldwide. Cigarette smoking has been recognized as an important risk factor, but the relation to other potential determinants is still inconsistent. We investigated the association between different lifestyle, biological and anthropometric factors and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective population-based cohort study from Kaunas, Lithuania.

METHODS

Our study included 7132 urban men initially free from any diagnosed cancer, followed for up to 30 years. 77 incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

RESULTS

Compared to never smokers, current smokers had a significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer, HR was 1.79 (95% CI 1.03-3.09) after adjustment for age, body mass index, education and alcohol consumption. Among smokers, a significant association with higher smoking intensity was shown (≥ 20 cigarettes/day: HR = 2.60; 95% CI 1.42-4.76, P(trend) = 0.046). We also observed a significantly increased risk for ≥ 30 pack-years of smoking (HR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.12-4.49, P(trend) = 0.16) and for age at starting smoking < 18 years (HR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.11-4.70, P(trend) = 0.43) as compared to never smokers. Alcohol consumption, body mass index and total cholesterol level were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer.

CONCLUSIONS

Smoking significantly increases pancreatic cancer incidence and its high prevalence in Lithuania may partly explain high incidence of the disease. No convincing evidence was found that alcohol consumption, body mass index or serum cholesterol level were associated with pancreatic cancer risk, although the assessment was limited by the lack of statistical power.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Group of Epidemiology, Cancer Control and Prevention Center, Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, P. Baublio 3B, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania. irena.kuzmickiene@vuoi.lt

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Cancer epidemiology 37:2 2013 Apr pg 133-9

    MeSH

    Adult
    Alcohol Drinking
    Body Mass Index
    Case-Control Studies
    Cholesterol
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Incidence
    Life Style
    Lithuania
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Pancreatic Neoplasms
    Prognosis
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Smoking

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23107757

    Citation

    Kuzmickiene, Irena, et al. "Smoking and Other Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: a Cohort Study in Men in Lithuania." Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 37, no. 2, 2013, pp. 133-9.
    Kuzmickiene I, Everatt R, Virviciute D, et al. Smoking and other risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37(2):133-9.
    Kuzmickiene, I., Everatt, R., Virviciute, D., Tamosiunas, A., Radisauskas, R., Reklaitiene, R., & Milinaviciene, E. (2013). Smoking and other risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania. Cancer Epidemiology, 37(2), pp. 133-9. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2012.10.001.
    Kuzmickiene I, et al. Smoking and Other Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: a Cohort Study in Men in Lithuania. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37(2):133-9. PubMed PMID: 23107757.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and other risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania. AU - Kuzmickiene,Irena, AU - Everatt,Ruta, AU - Virviciute,Dalia, AU - Tamosiunas,Abdonas, AU - Radisauskas,Ricardas, AU - Reklaitiene,Regina, AU - Milinaviciene,Egle, Y1 - 2012/10/26/ PY - 2012/06/21/received PY - 2012/09/27/revised PY - 2012/10/03/accepted PY - 2012/10/31/entrez PY - 2012/10/31/pubmed PY - 2013/7/31/medline SP - 133 EP - 9 JF - Cancer epidemiology JO - Cancer Epidemiol VL - 37 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cancer of the pancreas is a relatively rare, but highly fatal cancer worldwide. Cigarette smoking has been recognized as an important risk factor, but the relation to other potential determinants is still inconsistent. We investigated the association between different lifestyle, biological and anthropometric factors and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective population-based cohort study from Kaunas, Lithuania. METHODS: Our study included 7132 urban men initially free from any diagnosed cancer, followed for up to 30 years. 77 incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Compared to never smokers, current smokers had a significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer, HR was 1.79 (95% CI 1.03-3.09) after adjustment for age, body mass index, education and alcohol consumption. Among smokers, a significant association with higher smoking intensity was shown (≥ 20 cigarettes/day: HR = 2.60; 95% CI 1.42-4.76, P(trend) = 0.046). We also observed a significantly increased risk for ≥ 30 pack-years of smoking (HR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.12-4.49, P(trend) = 0.16) and for age at starting smoking < 18 years (HR = 2.29; 95% CI 1.11-4.70, P(trend) = 0.43) as compared to never smokers. Alcohol consumption, body mass index and total cholesterol level were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking significantly increases pancreatic cancer incidence and its high prevalence in Lithuania may partly explain high incidence of the disease. No convincing evidence was found that alcohol consumption, body mass index or serum cholesterol level were associated with pancreatic cancer risk, although the assessment was limited by the lack of statistical power. SN - 1877-783X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23107757/Smoking_and_other_risk_factors_for_pancreatic_cancer:_a_cohort_study_in_men_in_Lithuania_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1877-7821(12)00133-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -