Biological activities of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf extracts and isolation of the active compounds.J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18; 144(3):726-34.JE
Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae) is a common epiphytic lichen in the conifer-hardwood forest of Anatolia. This species is used in traditional medicine in Turkey as a treatment for wounds, eczema and hemorrhoids.
AIM OF THE STUDY
The present study was designed to investigate the active compounds from Pseudevernia. furfuracea, and the isolation studies yielded atraric acid (Aslan et al., 2006) as the major compound and a mixture of methyl hematommate (Baumann, 1960) and methyl chlorohematommate (Bayır et al., 2006). Furthermore, methanolic extract from thalli of Pseudevernia. furfuracea and its fractions and isolates (Aslan et al., 2006; Baumann, 1960; Bayır et al., 2006) were investigated for in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, and in vivo antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Antimicrobial activities of the samples were determined by using the disc diffusion technique. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used as a rapid TLC screening method to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Pseudevernia. furfuracea. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test was used to assess the efficacy of the extracts in protecting liposomes from lipid peroxidation. In vivo inhibitory effect of the extracts on the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice was studied for the assessment of anti-inflammatory activity. p-Benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test was used to explore the antinociceptive effects of the extracts. Moreover, the wound healing potential of the plant extracts that were evaluated by using in vivo incision and excision wound models on rats and mice, were comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol(®).
Significant antimicrobial activities were observed against Gram (+) microorganisms and Candida krusei and Candida. dubliniensis in dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and isolates. The methanol (MeOH), DCM and EtOAc extracts of the lichen were found to possess moderate inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation. Methanolic extract of the lichen was found to possess significant inhibitory activity on the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice whereas the other fractions did not show any activity. While DCM and EtOAc extracts and fractions showed notable anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model without inducing any apparent acute toxicity or gastric damage. Moreover, topical application of the ointment prepared with MeOH extract and EtOAc fraction onto the incised wounds exerted remarkable wound healing activity.
The results of these experimental studies exhibited that nonpolar fractions of Pseudevernia. furfuracea have significant antimicrobial activity against especially Candida species and polar fractions (especially MeOH) display antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and wound healing activities.