Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Nov; 69(11):1161-8.AG

Abstract

CONTEXT

The identification of modifiable predeployment vulnerability factors that increase the risk of combat stress reactions among soldiers once deployed to a war zone offers significant potential for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other combat-related stress disorders. Adults with anxiety disorders display heightened emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2)); however, data investigating prospective linkages between emotional reactivity to CO(2) and susceptibility to war-zone stress reactions are lacking.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the association of soldiers' predeployment emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge with several indices of subsequent war-zone stress symptoms assessed monthly while deployed in Iraq.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

Prospective cohort study of 158 soldiers with no history of deployment to a war zone were recruited from the Texas Combat Stress Risk Study between April 2, 2007, and August 28, 2009.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Multilevel regression models were used to investigate the association between emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge (assessed before deployment) and soldiers' reported symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression while deployed to Iraq.

RESULTS

Growth curves of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety/stress symptoms showed a significant curvilinear relationship during the 16-month deployment period. War-zone stressors reported in theater were associated with symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression. Consistent with the prediction, soldiers' emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% CO(2)-enriched air before deployment significantly potentiated the effects of war-zone stressors on the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms and general anxiety/stress symptoms but not on the development of depression, even after accounting for the effects of trait anxiety and the presence of past or current Axis I mental disorders.

CONCLUSION

Soldiers' emotional reactivity to a 35% CO(2) challenge may serve as a vulnerability factor for increasing soldiers' risk for PTSD and general anxiety/stress symptoms in response to war-zone stressors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA. Telch@austin.utexas.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23117637

Citation

Telch, Michael J., et al. "Emotional Reactivity to a Single Inhalation of 35% Carbon Dioxide and Its Association With Later Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Anxiety in Soldiers Deployed to Iraq." Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 11, 2012, pp. 1161-8.
Telch MJ, Rosenfield D, Lee HJ, et al. Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(11):1161-8.
Telch, M. J., Rosenfield, D., Lee, H. J., & Pai, A. (2012). Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(11), 1161-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.8
Telch MJ, et al. Emotional Reactivity to a Single Inhalation of 35% Carbon Dioxide and Its Association With Later Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Anxiety in Soldiers Deployed to Iraq. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(11):1161-8. PubMed PMID: 23117637.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq. AU - Telch,Michael J, AU - Rosenfield,David, AU - Lee,Han-Joo, AU - Pai,Anushka, PY - 2012/11/3/entrez PY - 2012/11/3/pubmed PY - 2013/1/3/medline SP - 1161 EP - 8 JF - Archives of general psychiatry JO - Arch Gen Psychiatry VL - 69 IS - 11 N2 - CONTEXT: The identification of modifiable predeployment vulnerability factors that increase the risk of combat stress reactions among soldiers once deployed to a war zone offers significant potential for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other combat-related stress disorders. Adults with anxiety disorders display heightened emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2)); however, data investigating prospective linkages between emotional reactivity to CO(2) and susceptibility to war-zone stress reactions are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of soldiers' predeployment emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge with several indices of subsequent war-zone stress symptoms assessed monthly while deployed in Iraq. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 158 soldiers with no history of deployment to a war zone were recruited from the Texas Combat Stress Risk Study between April 2, 2007, and August 28, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multilevel regression models were used to investigate the association between emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge (assessed before deployment) and soldiers' reported symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression while deployed to Iraq. RESULTS: Growth curves of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety/stress symptoms showed a significant curvilinear relationship during the 16-month deployment period. War-zone stressors reported in theater were associated with symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression. Consistent with the prediction, soldiers' emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% CO(2)-enriched air before deployment significantly potentiated the effects of war-zone stressors on the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms and general anxiety/stress symptoms but not on the development of depression, even after accounting for the effects of trait anxiety and the presence of past or current Axis I mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Soldiers' emotional reactivity to a 35% CO(2) challenge may serve as a vulnerability factor for increasing soldiers' risk for PTSD and general anxiety/stress symptoms in response to war-zone stressors. SN - 1538-3636 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23117637/Emotional_reactivity_to_a_single_inhalation_of_35_carbon_dioxide_and_its_association_with_later_symptoms_of_posttraumatic_stress_disorder_and_anxiety_in_soldiers_deployed_to_Iraq_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -