Growth promotion of Bifidobacterium species by whey and casein fractions from human and bovine milk.J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Feb; 28(2):287-92.JC
An in vitro assay was used to study the growth-promotional activity of human milk (HM), cow's milk (CM), and whey and casein fractions of HM and CM for five strains of Bifidobacterium species isolated originally from stools of human infants. Whey- and casein-predominant CM-based infant formulas were studied as well. When compared on an equivalent protein basis, the growth promotion activity of HM was greater than that of CM for Bifidobacterium bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus and Bifidobacterium longum but comparable for B. bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve. Pasteurization of HM and CM resulted in an increase of growth promotion activity for B. bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus and B. bifidum, a decrease for B. infantis, and no change for B. longum and B. breve. The growth promotion activity of HM whey was slightly higher than that of HM casein for four strains of bifidobacteria. When CM casein was a substrate, virtually no growth occurred for B. bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus, B. bifidum, B. infantis, and B. longum. The growth promotion activity of CM whey, however, was similar to that of HM whey. A similar trend was observed for CM-based infant formula. Whey-dominant formulas promoted better growth of B. bifidum serovar pennsylvanicus, B. bifidum, and B. infantis than casein-dominant formulas. The data suggest a direct relationship between amount of whey-specific factors and the ability to promote growth of clinically relevant strains of Bifidobacterium species by HM, CM, and CM-based infant formulas.