Impact of water quality on removal of carbamazepine in natural waters by N-doped TiO2 photo-catalytic thin film surfaces.J Hazard Mater. 2013 Jan 15; 244-245:463-71.JH
Photocatalytic experiments on the pharmaceutical pollutant carbamazepine (CBZ) were conducted using sol-gel nitrogen-doped TiO(2)-coated glass slides under a solar simulator. CBZ was stable to photodegradation under direct solar irradiation. No CBZ sorption to the catalyst surface was observed, as further confirmed by surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of N-doped TiO(2) surfaces. When exposing the catalyst surface to natural organic matter (NOM), an excess amount of carbon was detected relative to controls, which is consistent with NOM remaining on the catalyst surface. The catalyst surface charge was negative at pH values from 4 to 10 and decreased with increasing pH, correlated with enhanced CBZ removal with increasing medium pH in the range of 5-9. A dissolved organic carbon concentration of 5mg/L resulted in ~20% reduction in CBZ removal, probably due to competitive inhibition of the photocatalytic degradation of CBZ. At alkalinity values corresponding to CaCO(3) addition at 100mg/L, an over 40% decrease in CBZ removal was observed. A 35% reduction in CBZ occurred in the presence of surface water compared to complete suppression of the photocatalytic process in wastewater effluent.