A molecular phylogeny of the lizard genus Phymaturus (Squamata, Liolaemini): implications for species diversity and historical biogeography of southern South America.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013 Mar; 66(3):694-714.MP
The lizard genus Phymaturus is widely distributed in Argentina and along the eastern edge of Chile between 25° and 45° south. We sampled 27 of the 38 currently recognized species plus 22 candidate species using two mitochondrial genes (cytb and 12S), four protein coding nuclear genes and seven anonymous nuclear loci, and present the first comprehensive molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the clade. We recovered two large clades (the palluma or northern group and patagonicus or southern group) previously recognized on the basis of morphological and mitochondrial sequence evidence, and compared results obtained from concatenated-gene analyses with results of a coalescent-based species-tree approach (BEST). With both methods we identified four main clades within the palluma group (mallimaccii, roigorum, verdugo, and vociferator) and five main clades within the patagonicus group (calcogaster, indistinctus, payuniae, somuncurensis, and spurcus). We found several instances of non-monophyly with cytb and cases of incongruence between mitochondrial vs nuclear data for which we discuss alternative hypotheses. Although with lower support values, combined BEST results are more congruent with concatenated nuclear data than with combined concatenated analyses, suggesting that BEST is less influenced by demographic processes than combined concatenated analyses. We discuss the taxonomic, biogeographic and conservation implications of these results and how the future integration of phylogeographic and morphological approaches will allow the further testing of demographic and biogeographic hypotheses.