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Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes.
Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 97(1):155-66AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Consumption of caffeinated beverages such as coffee and tea has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Paradoxically, short-term metabolic studies have shown that caffeine impairs postprandial glycemic control.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to prospectively examine the association of caffeinated compared with caffeine-free beverages, including coffee, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and carbonated artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), with T2D risk.

DESIGN

We prospectively observed 74,749 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1984-2008) and 39,059 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, 1986-2008) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at baseline.

RESULTS

We documented 7370 incident cases of T2D during 24 y of follow-up in the NHS and 2865 new cases during 22 y of follow-up in the HPFS. After major lifestyle and dietary risk factors were controlled for, caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D in the NHS (RR per serving: 13% for caffeinated SSBs, 11% for caffeine-free SSBs; P < 0.05) and in the HPFS (RR per serving: 16% for caffeinated SSBs, 23% for caffeine-free SSBs; P < 0.01). Only caffeine-free ASB intake in NHS participants was associated with a higher risk of T2D (RR: 6% per serving; P < 0.001). Conversely, the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was associated with a lower risk of T2D [RR per serving: 8% for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee in the NHS (P < 0.0001) and 4% for caffeinated and 7% for decaffeinated coffee in the HPFS (P < 0.01)]. Only caffeinated tea was associated with a lower T2D risk among NHS participants (RR per serving: 5%; P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION

Irrespective of the caffeine content, SSB intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, and coffee intake was associated with a lower risk of T2D.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23151535

Citation

Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N., et al. "Caffeinated and Caffeine-free Beverages and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 1, 2013, pp. 155-66.
Bhupathiraju SN, Pan A, Malik VS, et al. Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(1):155-66.
Bhupathiraju, S. N., Pan, A., Malik, V. S., Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., van Dam, R. M., & Hu, F. B. (2013). Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(1), pp. 155-66. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.048603.
Bhupathiraju SN, et al. Caffeinated and Caffeine-free Beverages and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(1):155-66. PubMed PMID: 23151535.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes. AU - Bhupathiraju,Shilpa N, AU - Pan,An, AU - Malik,Vasanti S, AU - Manson,JoAnn E, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - van Dam,Rob M, AU - Hu,Frank B, Y1 - 2012/11/14/ PY - 2012/11/16/entrez PY - 2012/11/16/pubmed PY - 2013/3/8/medline SP - 155 EP - 66 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 97 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeinated beverages such as coffee and tea has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Paradoxically, short-term metabolic studies have shown that caffeine impairs postprandial glycemic control. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to prospectively examine the association of caffeinated compared with caffeine-free beverages, including coffee, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and carbonated artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), with T2D risk. DESIGN: We prospectively observed 74,749 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1984-2008) and 39,059 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, 1986-2008) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at baseline. RESULTS: We documented 7370 incident cases of T2D during 24 y of follow-up in the NHS and 2865 new cases during 22 y of follow-up in the HPFS. After major lifestyle and dietary risk factors were controlled for, caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D in the NHS (RR per serving: 13% for caffeinated SSBs, 11% for caffeine-free SSBs; P < 0.05) and in the HPFS (RR per serving: 16% for caffeinated SSBs, 23% for caffeine-free SSBs; P < 0.01). Only caffeine-free ASB intake in NHS participants was associated with a higher risk of T2D (RR: 6% per serving; P < 0.001). Conversely, the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was associated with a lower risk of T2D [RR per serving: 8% for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee in the NHS (P < 0.0001) and 4% for caffeinated and 7% for decaffeinated coffee in the HPFS (P < 0.01)]. Only caffeinated tea was associated with a lower T2D risk among NHS participants (RR per serving: 5%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the caffeine content, SSB intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, and coffee intake was associated with a lower risk of T2D. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23151535/Caffeinated_and_caffeine_free_beverages_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.112.048603 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -