Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and their metabolites: synthesis and antioxidant properties of the sulfate derivatives of ferulic and caffeic acids and of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid.J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Dec 19; 60(50):12312-23.JA
The main metabolites of caffeic and ferulic acids (ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, caffeic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate), the most representative phenolic acids in fruits and vegetables, and the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid were synthesized, purified, and tested for their antioxidant activity in comparison with those of their parent compounds and other related phenolics. Both the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging method were used. Ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate and ferulic acid-4'-O-glucuronide exhibited very low antioxidant activity, while the monosulfate derivatives of caffeic acid were 4-fold less efficient as the antioxidant than caffeic acid. The acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid showed strong antioxidant action. The antioxidant activity of caffeic acid-3'-O-glucuronide and caffeic acid-4'-O-glucuronide was also studied. Our results demonstrate that some of the products of phenolic acid metabolism still retain strong antioxidant properties. Moreover, we first demonstrate the ex vivo synthesis of the acyl glucuronide of ferulic acid by mouse liver microsomes, in addition to the phenyl glucuronide.