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Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Nov 27; 12:232.BC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects.

METHODS

We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract.

RESULTS

Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay.

CONCLUSIONS

Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components responsible for the therapeutic properties of the plant.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Industrial Microbiology Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST), Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dhaka, Bangladesh. fakruddinmurad@gmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23181593

Citation

Fakruddin, Md, et al. "Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Ethanol Extract of the Stem Bark of Clausena Heptaphylla." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, 2012, p. 232.
Fakruddin M, Mannan KS, Mazumdar RM, et al. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:232.
Fakruddin, M., Mannan, K. S., Mazumdar, R. M., & Afroz, H. (2012). Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12, 232. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-232
Fakruddin M, et al. Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Ethanol Extract of the Stem Bark of Clausena Heptaphylla. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Nov 27;12:232. PubMed PMID: 23181593.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla. AU - Fakruddin,Md, AU - Mannan,Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin, AU - Mazumdar,Reaz Mohammad, AU - Afroz,Hafsa, Y1 - 2012/11/27/ PY - 2012/05/14/received PY - 2012/11/23/accepted PY - 2012/11/28/entrez PY - 2012/11/28/pubmed PY - 2013/5/29/medline SP - 232 EP - 232 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. METHODS: We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. RESULTS: Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. CONCLUSIONS: Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components responsible for the therapeutic properties of the plant. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23181593/Antibacterial_antifungal_and_antioxidant_activities_of_the_ethanol_extract_of_the_stem_bark_of_Clausena_heptaphylla_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-12-232 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -