[Investigation of the effects of probiotic bacteria on bacterial translocation that developed during diagnostic laparoscopy: an experimental study].Mikrobiyol Bul. 2012 Oct; 46(4):660-70.MB
Probiotics which are non-pathogenic live microorganisms ingested along with food or as dietary supplements, are thought to be beneficial to the host by supporting the microbial balance in digestive system. Various studies suggest that the effects of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa and immunity are protective against bacterial translocation. We aimed to investigate bacterial translocation related to the amount of CO2 insufflation given during laparoscopy and the effect of probiotic bacteria in an experimental peritonitis model. In this study 60 Wistar rats were used in six groups consisting of 10 rats. Group 1, 3 and 5 consisted of the rats that were fed without probiotics, while the rats in Group 2, 4, and 6 were fed with water containing 5 x 108 cfu/ml probiotic bacteria complex (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus) for 15 days. To generate experimental peritonitis, 2 x 107 cfu/ml Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was inoculated intraperitoneally to all of the rats. Thereafter, laparoscopy was applied in all groups. Application in Group 1 and Group 2 was without CO2; Group 3 and Group 4 with 14 mmHg CO2 insufflation, and Group 5 and Group 6 with 20 mmHg CO2 insufflation. Blood samples were taken in 2nd, 4th, and 6th hours. Mesenteric lymph node, liver and spleen samples were taken at 6th hour when the rats were sacrificed and then these were evaluated microbiologically with qualitative and quantitative methods. Bacterial translocation and bacteremia were found in the rats that were undergone experimental peritonitis during laparoscopy. All positive tissue and blood cultures yielded E.coli. The highest level of bacterial translocation was found to be in mesenteric lymph nodes (in 3/10, 6/10 and 10/10 in groups 1, 3 and 5 fed without probiotics, respectively; in 2/10, 3/10 and 4/10 in groups 2, 4 and 6 fed with probiotics, respectively). The bacterial translocation rates were found to be related to the increased CO2 insufflation. It was found that probiotic bacteria were more effective for decreasing bacterial translocation rates and bacteremia in the groups that were given high CO2 pressure during laparoscopy. It was also found that these results were correlated with bacterial translocation per gram of tissue. As an example, the quantitative bacterial growth values detected in mesenteric lymph node were 5.4 ± 2.9 x 103, 10.6 ± 3.3 x 103 and 21.5 ± 12.4 x 103 cfu/g in groups 1, 3 and 5, fed without probiotics, respectively; and 2.0 ± 1.3 x 103, 3.8 ± 1.9 x 103 and 9.0 ± 3.1 x 103 cfu/g in groups 2, 4 and 6, fed with probiotics, respectively. Our data emphasized that probiotic bacteria may be used as prophylactic agents for the prevention of bacterial translocation during laparoscopy, however comprehensive and clinical studies are needed to support these experimental results.