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Experimental parapoxvirus infection (contagious ecthyma) in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).
Vet Microbiol 2013; 162(2-4):499-506VM

Abstract

Contagious ecthyma (contagious pustular dermatitis, orf) occurs world-wide in sheep and goats and is caused by orf virus (genus Parapoxvirus, family Poxviridae). Contagious ecthyma outbreaks have been described in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden, Finland and Norway, occasionally with high mortality. Fourteen one-year-old reindeer were corralled in mid-April. One week after arrival, two animals received a commercial live orf virus vaccine for sheep (Scabivax(®)) on scarified skin of the medial thigh. Four weeks later, the two vaccinated and six additional animals were inoculated in scarified oral mucosa with parapoxvirus obtained from reindeer with clinical contagious ecthyma. The remaining six reindeer were kept as sentinels, sharing feed and water with the inoculated animals. A small whitish lesion appeared on the inoculation site and the labial skin-mucosa junction of three animals five days post inoculation (p.i.). Twelve days p.i., typical ecthyma lesions were visible on the inoculation site in six of eight animals, including both vaccinees. Four inoculated animals (including both vaccinees) and one sentinel seroconverted 12 days p.i., and five animals (including one sentinel) seroconverted 20 days p.i. No contagious ecthyma-like lesions were detected in the sentinels. All animals were euthanized at 26-29 days p.i. Histological examination of lesions showed proliferative dermatitis with epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, intra-epithelial pustules and ulcers. Orf virus DNA was detected in mandibular lymph nodes, tonsils and mucosal lesions of four animals, including one sentinel, which showed that virus transmission took place. The commercial orf virus vaccine may be difficult to administer due to the need for close-cropping and its zoonotic nature, and did not indicate significant protection, although the latter has to be verified with a larger number of animals.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, NO-9010 Tromsø, Norway. morten.tryland@nvh.noNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23201244

Citation

Tryland, Morten, et al. "Experimental Parapoxvirus Infection (contagious Ecthyma) in Semi-domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus Tarandus)." Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 162, no. 2-4, 2013, pp. 499-506.
Tryland M, Klein J, Berger T, et al. Experimental parapoxvirus infection (contagious ecthyma) in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Vet Microbiol. 2013;162(2-4):499-506.
Tryland, M., Klein, J., Berger, T., Josefsen, T. D., das Neves, C. G., Oksanen, A., & Åsbakk, K. (2013). Experimental parapoxvirus infection (contagious ecthyma) in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Veterinary Microbiology, 162(2-4), pp. 499-506. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.039.
Tryland M, et al. Experimental Parapoxvirus Infection (contagious Ecthyma) in Semi-domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus Tarandus). Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 23;162(2-4):499-506. PubMed PMID: 23201244.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Experimental parapoxvirus infection (contagious ecthyma) in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). AU - Tryland,Morten, AU - Klein,Jörn, AU - Berger,Therese, AU - Josefsen,Terje D, AU - das Neves,Carlos G, AU - Oksanen,Antti, AU - Åsbakk,Kjetil, Y1 - 2012/11/12/ PY - 2012/06/18/received PY - 2012/09/23/revised PY - 2012/10/05/accepted PY - 2012/12/4/entrez PY - 2012/12/4/pubmed PY - 2014/6/3/medline SP - 499 EP - 506 JF - Veterinary microbiology JO - Vet. Microbiol. VL - 162 IS - 2-4 N2 - Contagious ecthyma (contagious pustular dermatitis, orf) occurs world-wide in sheep and goats and is caused by orf virus (genus Parapoxvirus, family Poxviridae). Contagious ecthyma outbreaks have been described in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden, Finland and Norway, occasionally with high mortality. Fourteen one-year-old reindeer were corralled in mid-April. One week after arrival, two animals received a commercial live orf virus vaccine for sheep (Scabivax(®)) on scarified skin of the medial thigh. Four weeks later, the two vaccinated and six additional animals were inoculated in scarified oral mucosa with parapoxvirus obtained from reindeer with clinical contagious ecthyma. The remaining six reindeer were kept as sentinels, sharing feed and water with the inoculated animals. A small whitish lesion appeared on the inoculation site and the labial skin-mucosa junction of three animals five days post inoculation (p.i.). Twelve days p.i., typical ecthyma lesions were visible on the inoculation site in six of eight animals, including both vaccinees. Four inoculated animals (including both vaccinees) and one sentinel seroconverted 12 days p.i., and five animals (including one sentinel) seroconverted 20 days p.i. No contagious ecthyma-like lesions were detected in the sentinels. All animals were euthanized at 26-29 days p.i. Histological examination of lesions showed proliferative dermatitis with epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, intra-epithelial pustules and ulcers. Orf virus DNA was detected in mandibular lymph nodes, tonsils and mucosal lesions of four animals, including one sentinel, which showed that virus transmission took place. The commercial orf virus vaccine may be difficult to administer due to the need for close-cropping and its zoonotic nature, and did not indicate significant protection, although the latter has to be verified with a larger number of animals. SN - 1873-2542 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23201244/Experimental_parapoxvirus_infection__contagious_ecthyma__in_semi_domesticated_reindeer__Rangifer_tarandus_tarandus__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-1135(12)00591-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -