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Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: from the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics.
Toxicon. 2013 Jul; 69:168-79.T

Abstract

The assessment of the capacity of antivenoms to neutralize the lethal activity of snake venoms is the gold standard in the preclinical analysis of antivenom efficacy, and is routinely performed by manufacturers and quality control laboratories. However, the complexity of snake venom composition and toxicological profile demands that, for many venoms, such as those of viperid snakes and some elapids, the neutralization of lethality be complemented with the analysis of the neutralization of other relevant toxic activities, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, necrotizing, procoagulant and defibrinogenating effects. This expanded protocol for preclinical testing of antivenoms should be used when a new antivenom is developed or when an existing antivenom is introduced in a new geographical setting for the neutralization of either homologous or heterologous venoms. In recent years, the assessment of the immunological reactivity of antivenoms has been enriched by the use of proteomic tools, with a methodology named 'antivenomics'. This allows the identification of venom components to which antivenoms have, or lack, antibodies, and thus complements the data gathered in neutralization tests, paving the way for a knowledge-based improvement of antivenom design and efficacy. International projects involving participants of manufacturing, quality control and academic research groups should be promoted in order to gain a deeper understanding on the preclinical neutralizing spectrum of antivenoms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. jose.gutierrez@ucr.ac.crNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23201503

Citation

Gutiérrez, José María, et al. "Assessing the Preclinical Efficacy of Antivenoms: From the Lethality Neutralization Assay to Antivenomics." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 69, 2013, pp. 168-79.
Gutiérrez JM, Solano G, Pla D, et al. Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: from the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics. Toxicon. 2013;69:168-79.
Gutiérrez, J. M., Solano, G., Pla, D., Herrera, M., Segura, Á., Villalta, M., Vargas, M., Sanz, L., Lomonte, B., Calvete, J. J., & León, G. (2013). Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: from the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 69, 168-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.11.016
Gutiérrez JM, et al. Assessing the Preclinical Efficacy of Antivenoms: From the Lethality Neutralization Assay to Antivenomics. Toxicon. 2013;69:168-79. PubMed PMID: 23201503.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: from the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics. AU - Gutiérrez,José María, AU - Solano,Gabriela, AU - Pla,Davinia, AU - Herrera,María, AU - Segura,Álvaro, AU - Villalta,Mauren, AU - Vargas,Mariángela, AU - Sanz,Libia, AU - Lomonte,Bruno, AU - Calvete,Juan J, AU - León,Guillermo, Y1 - 2012/11/29/ PY - 2012/10/11/received PY - 2012/11/13/accepted PY - 2012/12/4/entrez PY - 2012/12/4/pubmed PY - 2014/2/7/medline SP - 168 EP - 79 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 69 N2 - The assessment of the capacity of antivenoms to neutralize the lethal activity of snake venoms is the gold standard in the preclinical analysis of antivenom efficacy, and is routinely performed by manufacturers and quality control laboratories. However, the complexity of snake venom composition and toxicological profile demands that, for many venoms, such as those of viperid snakes and some elapids, the neutralization of lethality be complemented with the analysis of the neutralization of other relevant toxic activities, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, necrotizing, procoagulant and defibrinogenating effects. This expanded protocol for preclinical testing of antivenoms should be used when a new antivenom is developed or when an existing antivenom is introduced in a new geographical setting for the neutralization of either homologous or heterologous venoms. In recent years, the assessment of the immunological reactivity of antivenoms has been enriched by the use of proteomic tools, with a methodology named 'antivenomics'. This allows the identification of venom components to which antivenoms have, or lack, antibodies, and thus complements the data gathered in neutralization tests, paving the way for a knowledge-based improvement of antivenom design and efficacy. International projects involving participants of manufacturing, quality control and academic research groups should be promoted in order to gain a deeper understanding on the preclinical neutralizing spectrum of antivenoms. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23201503/Assessing_the_preclinical_efficacy_of_antivenoms:_from_the_lethality_neutralization_assay_to_antivenomics_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(12)00811-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -