Photo-Fenton and modified photo-Fenton at neutral pH for the treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents: a comparison.Water Res. 2013 Feb 01; 47(2):833-40.WR
This study compares two different solar photo-Fenton processes, conventional photo-Fenton at pH3 and modified photo-Fenton at neutral pH with minimal Fe (5 mg L⁻¹) and minimal initial H₂O₂ (50 mg L⁻¹) concentrations for the degradation of emerging contaminants in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants effluents in solar pilot plant. As Fe precipitates at neutral pH, complexing agents which are able to form photoactive species, do not pollute the environment or increase toxicity have to be used to keep the iron in solution. This study was done using real effluents containing over 60 different contaminants, which were monitored during treatment by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap mass analyzer (LC-QTRAP-MS/MS) operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Concentrations of the selected contaminants ranged from a few ng L⁻¹ to tens of μg L⁻¹. It was demonstrated in all cases the removal of over 95% of the contaminants. Photo-Fenton at pH3 provided the best treatment time, but has the disadvantage that the water must be previously acidified. The most promising process was photo-Fenton modified with Ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), as the pH remained in the neutral range.