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Dietary oils and FADS1-FADS2 genetic variants modulate [13C]α-linolenic acid metabolism and plasma fatty acid composition.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan; 97(1):195-207.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Desaturation of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to omega-3 (n-3) long-chain fatty acids (FAs) is mediated through FA desaturases (FADS1-FADS2) and may be influenced by dietary FA composition.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated the effects of diets enriched in flaxseed oil (FXCO) or high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO) compared with a Western diet (WD) and FADS1-FADS2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on plasma FAs and [U-(13)C]ALA metabolism.

DESIGN

In a randomized crossover design, 36 hyperlipidemic subjects consumed 3 isoenergetic diets enriched in FXCO (20.6 g ALA/d), HOCO (2.4 g ALA/d), or WD (1.3 g ALA/d) for 4 wk. On day 27, blood was sampled 0, 24, and 48 h after the subjects (n = 26) consumed 45 mg [U-(13)C]ALA. The subjects were genotyped for 4 FADS SNPs.

RESULTS

FXCO increased (P < 0.001) plasma ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), with no change in DHA compared with the HOCO or WD diets. At 24 and 48 h, [U-(13)C]ALA recovered as plasma [(13)C]EPA and [(13)C]DPA were lower (P < 0.001) after the FXCO diet than after the HOCO and WD diets. No change in [(13)C]DHA was observed between diets. Minor allele homozygotes of rs174545, rs174583, rs174561, and rs174537 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma EPA, arachidonic acid (AA), EPA/ALA, and AA/linoleic acid compositions and lower (P < 0.05) plasma [(13)C]EPA enrichment at 24 and 48 h in comparison with carriers of the major allele after all diets. SNPs were not associated with plasma composition of DHA or [(13)C]DHA enrichment.

CONCLUSION

An increase in ALA intake resulting in increased plasma EPA composition may be cardioprotective, especially in minor allele homozygotes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00927199.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23221573

Citation

Gillingham, Leah G., et al. "Dietary Oils and FADS1-FADS2 Genetic Variants Modulate [13C]α-linolenic Acid Metabolism and Plasma Fatty Acid Composition." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 1, 2013, pp. 195-207.
Gillingham LG, Harding SV, Rideout TC, et al. Dietary oils and FADS1-FADS2 genetic variants modulate [13C]α-linolenic acid metabolism and plasma fatty acid composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(1):195-207.
Gillingham, L. G., Harding, S. V., Rideout, T. C., Yurkova, N., Cunnane, S. C., Eck, P. K., & Jones, P. J. (2013). Dietary oils and FADS1-FADS2 genetic variants modulate [13C]α-linolenic acid metabolism and plasma fatty acid composition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(1), 195-207. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.043117
Gillingham LG, et al. Dietary Oils and FADS1-FADS2 Genetic Variants Modulate [13C]α-linolenic Acid Metabolism and Plasma Fatty Acid Composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(1):195-207. PubMed PMID: 23221573.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary oils and FADS1-FADS2 genetic variants modulate [13C]α-linolenic acid metabolism and plasma fatty acid composition. AU - Gillingham,Leah G, AU - Harding,Scott V, AU - Rideout,Todd C, AU - Yurkova,Natalia, AU - Cunnane,Stephen C, AU - Eck,Peter K, AU - Jones,Peter J H, Y1 - 2012/12/05/ PY - 2012/12/11/entrez PY - 2012/12/12/pubmed PY - 2013/3/8/medline SP - 195 EP - 207 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 97 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Desaturation of dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) to omega-3 (n-3) long-chain fatty acids (FAs) is mediated through FA desaturases (FADS1-FADS2) and may be influenced by dietary FA composition. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of diets enriched in flaxseed oil (FXCO) or high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO) compared with a Western diet (WD) and FADS1-FADS2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on plasma FAs and [U-(13)C]ALA metabolism. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, 36 hyperlipidemic subjects consumed 3 isoenergetic diets enriched in FXCO (20.6 g ALA/d), HOCO (2.4 g ALA/d), or WD (1.3 g ALA/d) for 4 wk. On day 27, blood was sampled 0, 24, and 48 h after the subjects (n = 26) consumed 45 mg [U-(13)C]ALA. The subjects were genotyped for 4 FADS SNPs. RESULTS: FXCO increased (P < 0.001) plasma ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), with no change in DHA compared with the HOCO or WD diets. At 24 and 48 h, [U-(13)C]ALA recovered as plasma [(13)C]EPA and [(13)C]DPA were lower (P < 0.001) after the FXCO diet than after the HOCO and WD diets. No change in [(13)C]DHA was observed between diets. Minor allele homozygotes of rs174545, rs174583, rs174561, and rs174537 had lower (P < 0.05) plasma EPA, arachidonic acid (AA), EPA/ALA, and AA/linoleic acid compositions and lower (P < 0.05) plasma [(13)C]EPA enrichment at 24 and 48 h in comparison with carriers of the major allele after all diets. SNPs were not associated with plasma composition of DHA or [(13)C]DHA enrichment. CONCLUSION: An increase in ALA intake resulting in increased plasma EPA composition may be cardioprotective, especially in minor allele homozygotes. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00927199. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23221573/Dietary_oils_and_FADS1_FADS2_genetic_variants_modulate_[13C]α_linolenic_acid_metabolism_and_plasma_fatty_acid_composition_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.112.043117 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -