Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with abnormal cardiac ultrasound findings: evaluation of chromosomal microarray-based analysis.Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Apr; 41(4):375-82.UO
To assess the frequency of karyotype abnormalities and chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome among fetuses with abnormal cardiac ultrasound findings, and to evaluate the clinical value of chromosomal microarray-based analysis (CMA) in the study of such pregnancies.
First, we carried out retrospective analysis of karyotype abnormalities and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cases diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2011 in our center among fetuses with abnormal cardiac ultrasound findings (n = 276). Second, CMA was performed in 51 of the fetuses with such findings, normal karyotype and negative or no 22q11.2 deletion syndrome study, and in the only fetus with a heart defect and an apparently balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangement.
Out of the 276 pregnancies with abnormal cardiac ultrasound findings, karyotyping revealed a chromosomal abnormality in 44 (15.9%). Of fetuses with normal karyotype in which 22q11.2 deletion syndrome studies were performed, 6.4% (5/78) had this microdeletion syndrome. Among fetuses with abnormal cardiac findings, normal karyotype and negative or no 22q11.2 deletion syndrome study that underwent CMA, the detection rate of pathogenic copy number variants not detected by conventional cytogenetics was 2.0% (1/51), and no variants of uncertain clinical significance were found. In the fetus with a heart defect and an apparently balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangement, CMA revealed that the rearrangement was not truly balanced.
In the assessment of genetic abnormalities in pregnancies with abnormal cardiac ultrasound findings, the diagnostic yield may be increased by 2% if CMA is used as a complementary tool to conventional cytogenetics. Our results suggest that CMA could be a good alternative to karyotyping in these pregnancies.