Urinary metabolite levels of pyrethroid insecticides in infants living in an agricultural area of the Province of Jiangsu in China.Chemosphere. 2013 Mar; 90(11):2705-13.C
Pyrethroid insecticides are extensively and increasingly applied in agricultural and residential environments in China. Children's exposure to pesticides attracted global concerns because of their particular vulnerability. Several studies have reported residual pyrethroid levels in urine both in adults and in children. However, few published data focused on very young infants. The study aimed to assess exposure to pyrethroid insecticides in young infants and investigate the potential influence factors on pyrethroid exposure levels. Data on pyrethroids exposure was based on questionnaire items and measurement of urinary metabolite levels among 481 infants. We detected pyrethroid metabolites of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA and trans-DCCA) in urine using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Median values for urinary pyrethroid metabolites in these infants were 0.39 μgL(-1) for 3-PBA, 0.18 μgL(-1) for cis-DCCA, 0.92 μgL(-1) for trans-DCCA, respectively. About 60.9% of the infants had urinary concentrations of three pyrethroid metabolites that were above the level of 0.10 μgL(-1) (limit of detection, LOD). These findings of the urinary metabolites were comparable or slightly higher than those children from the other countries. From questionnaire, we learned that more than 70% of households reported that they or family members had applied mosquito repellents in infants. Above data indicated the need to assess the potential adverse effects of pyrethroids exposure on infants in order to take adequate measures to protect them from pesticide exposures during early childhood.