Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicides in the ten spotted live-bearer fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842).Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013 Mar; 89:166-73.EE
Mortality, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity of the 48% glyphosate-based formulations Panzer and Credit(®) were evaluated on Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces, Poeciliidae) under laboratory conditions. Induction of micronuclei (MN) and alterations in the erythrocytes:erythroblasts ratio were employed as end points for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, respectively. For Panzer(®), mean values of 16.70 and 15.68 mg/L were determined for LC(50) at 24 and 96 h, respectively, and these concentrations reached mean values of 98.50 and 91.73 mg/L for Credit(®). LC(50) values decreased as a negative linear function of Panzer(®) exposure time within the 0-96 h period, but not for Credit(®). LC(50) values indicated that the fish were more sensitive to Panzer(®) than to Credit(®). Both 3.9 and 7.8 mg/L of Panzer(®) increased MN frequency at 48 and 96 h of treatment. When fish were exposed to Credit(®), an increased frequency of MN over control values was found after 96 h for all concentrations assayed, but not after 48 h. No cellular cytotoxicity was found after Panzer(®) and Credit(®) treatment, regardless of both the concentration and the sampling time. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that Panzer(®) and Credit(®) should be considered as glyphosate-based commercial formulations with genotoxic but not cytotoxic effect properties.