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A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory.
Nutrition. 2013 Apr; 29(4):630-4.N

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Universal salt iodization is an effective strategy to optimize population-level iodine. At the same time as salt-lowering initiatives are encouraged globally, there is concern about compromised iodine intakes. This study investigated whether salt intakes at recommended levels resulted in a suboptimal iodine status in a country where salt is the vehicle for iodine fortification.

METHODS

Three 24-h urine samples were collected for the assessment of urinary sodium and one sample was taken for urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in a convenience sample of 262 adult men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Median UIC was compared across categories of sodium excretion equivalent to salt intakes lower than 5, 5 to 9, and greater than or equal to 9 g/d.

RESULTS

The median UIC was 120 μg/L (interquartile range 75.3-196.3), indicating iodine sufficiency. Less one-fourth (23.2%) of subjects had urinary sodium excretion values within the desirable range (salt <5 g/d), 50.7% had high values (5-9 g/d), and 22.8% had very high values (≥9 g/d). No association between urinary iodine and mean 3 × 24-h urinary sodium concentration was found (r = 0.087, P = 0.198) and UIC status did not differ according to urinary sodium categories (P = 0.804).

CONCLUSION

In a country with mandatory universal salt iodization, consumers with salt intakes within the recommended range (<5 g/d) are iodine replete, and median UIC does not differ across categories of salt intake. This indicates that much of the dietary salt is provided from non-iodinated sources, presumably added to processed foods.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. karenc@uow.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23274097

Citation

Charlton, Karen E., et al. "A Lowered Salt Intake Does Not Compromise Iodine Status in Cape Town, South Africa, Where Salt Iodization Is Mandatory." Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), vol. 29, no. 4, 2013, pp. 630-4.
Charlton KE, Jooste PL, Steyn K, et al. A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory. Nutrition. 2013;29(4):630-4.
Charlton, K. E., Jooste, P. L., Steyn, K., Levitt, N. S., & Ghosh, A. (2013). A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 29(4), 630-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.09.010
Charlton KE, et al. A Lowered Salt Intake Does Not Compromise Iodine Status in Cape Town, South Africa, Where Salt Iodization Is Mandatory. Nutrition. 2013;29(4):630-4. PubMed PMID: 23274097.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A lowered salt intake does not compromise iodine status in Cape Town, South Africa, where salt iodization is mandatory. AU - Charlton,Karen E, AU - Jooste,Pieter L, AU - Steyn,Krisela, AU - Levitt,Naomi S, AU - Ghosh,Abhijeet, Y1 - 2012/12/28/ PY - 2012/07/17/received PY - 2012/08/28/revised PY - 2012/09/14/accepted PY - 2013/1/1/entrez PY - 2013/1/1/pubmed PY - 2013/9/5/medline SP - 630 EP - 4 JF - Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) JO - Nutrition VL - 29 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Universal salt iodization is an effective strategy to optimize population-level iodine. At the same time as salt-lowering initiatives are encouraged globally, there is concern about compromised iodine intakes. This study investigated whether salt intakes at recommended levels resulted in a suboptimal iodine status in a country where salt is the vehicle for iodine fortification. METHODS: Three 24-h urine samples were collected for the assessment of urinary sodium and one sample was taken for urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in a convenience sample of 262 adult men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Median UIC was compared across categories of sodium excretion equivalent to salt intakes lower than 5, 5 to 9, and greater than or equal to 9 g/d. RESULTS: The median UIC was 120 μg/L (interquartile range 75.3-196.3), indicating iodine sufficiency. Less one-fourth (23.2%) of subjects had urinary sodium excretion values within the desirable range (salt <5 g/d), 50.7% had high values (5-9 g/d), and 22.8% had very high values (≥9 g/d). No association between urinary iodine and mean 3 × 24-h urinary sodium concentration was found (r = 0.087, P = 0.198) and UIC status did not differ according to urinary sodium categories (P = 0.804). CONCLUSION: In a country with mandatory universal salt iodization, consumers with salt intakes within the recommended range (<5 g/d) are iodine replete, and median UIC does not differ across categories of salt intake. This indicates that much of the dietary salt is provided from non-iodinated sources, presumably added to processed foods. SN - 1873-1244 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23274097/A_lowered_salt_intake_does_not_compromise_iodine_status_in_Cape_Town_South_Africa_where_salt_iodization_is_mandatory_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0899-9007(12)00366-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -