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Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
JAMA. 2013 Jan 02; 309(1):71-82.JAMA

Abstract

IMPORTANCE

Estimates of the relative mortality risks associated with normal weight, overweight, and obesity may help to inform decision making in the clinical setting.

OBJECTIVE

To perform a systematic review of reported hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality for overweight and obesity relative to normal weight in the general population.

DATA SOURCES

PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases were searched through September 30, 2012, without language restrictions.

STUDY SELECTION

Articles that reported HRs for all-cause mortality using standard body mass index (BMI) categories from prospective studies of general populations of adults were selected by consensus among multiple reviewers. Studies were excluded that used nonstandard categories or that were limited to adolescents or to those with specific medical conditions or to those undergoing specific procedures. PubMed searches yielded 7034 articles, of which 141 (2.0%) were eligible. An EMBASE search yielded 2 additional articles. After eliminating overlap, 97 studies were retained for analysis, providing a combined sample size of more than 2.88 million individuals and more than 270,000 deaths.

DATA EXTRACTION

Data were extracted by 1 reviewer and then reviewed by 3 independent reviewers. We selected the most complex model available for the full sample and used a variety of sensitivity analyses to address issues of possible overadjustment (adjusted for factors in causal pathway) or underadjustment (not adjusted for at least age, sex, and smoking).

RESULTS

Random-effects summary all-cause mortality HRs for overweight (BMI of 25-<30), obesity (BMI of ≥30), grade 1 obesity (BMI of 30-<35), and grades 2 and 3 obesity (BMI of ≥35) were calculated relative to normal weight (BMI of 18.5-<25). The summary HRs were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.96) for overweight, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12-1.25) for obesity (all grades combined), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01) for grade 1 obesity, and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.18-1.41) for grades 2 and 3 obesity. These findings persisted when limited to studies with measured weight and height that were considered to be adequately adjusted. The HRs tended to be higher when weight and height were self-reported rather than measured.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

Relative to normal weight, both obesity (all grades) and grades 2 and 3 obesity were associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality. Grade 1 obesity overall was not associated with higher mortality, and overweight was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality. The use of predefined standard BMI groupings can facilitate between-study comparisons.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Rd, Room 4336, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA. kmf2@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23280227

Citation

Flegal, Katherine M., et al. "Association of All-cause Mortality With Overweight and Obesity Using Standard Body Mass Index Categories: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." JAMA, vol. 309, no. 1, 2013, pp. 71-82.
Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, et al. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309(1):71-82.
Flegal, K. M., Kit, B. K., Orpana, H., & Graubard, B. I. (2013). Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 309(1), 71-82. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.113905
Flegal KM, et al. Association of All-cause Mortality With Overweight and Obesity Using Standard Body Mass Index Categories: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013 Jan 2;309(1):71-82. PubMed PMID: 23280227.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Flegal,Katherine M, AU - Kit,Brian K, AU - Orpana,Heather, AU - Graubard,Barry I, PY - 2013/1/3/entrez PY - 2013/1/3/pubmed PY - 2013/1/4/medline SP - 71 EP - 82 JF - JAMA JO - JAMA VL - 309 IS - 1 N2 - IMPORTANCE: Estimates of the relative mortality risks associated with normal weight, overweight, and obesity may help to inform decision making in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of reported hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality for overweight and obesity relative to normal weight in the general population. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases were searched through September 30, 2012, without language restrictions. STUDY SELECTION: Articles that reported HRs for all-cause mortality using standard body mass index (BMI) categories from prospective studies of general populations of adults were selected by consensus among multiple reviewers. Studies were excluded that used nonstandard categories or that were limited to adolescents or to those with specific medical conditions or to those undergoing specific procedures. PubMed searches yielded 7034 articles, of which 141 (2.0%) were eligible. An EMBASE search yielded 2 additional articles. After eliminating overlap, 97 studies were retained for analysis, providing a combined sample size of more than 2.88 million individuals and more than 270,000 deaths. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by 1 reviewer and then reviewed by 3 independent reviewers. We selected the most complex model available for the full sample and used a variety of sensitivity analyses to address issues of possible overadjustment (adjusted for factors in causal pathway) or underadjustment (not adjusted for at least age, sex, and smoking). RESULTS: Random-effects summary all-cause mortality HRs for overweight (BMI of 25-<30), obesity (BMI of ≥30), grade 1 obesity (BMI of 30-<35), and grades 2 and 3 obesity (BMI of ≥35) were calculated relative to normal weight (BMI of 18.5-<25). The summary HRs were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.96) for overweight, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12-1.25) for obesity (all grades combined), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01) for grade 1 obesity, and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.18-1.41) for grades 2 and 3 obesity. These findings persisted when limited to studies with measured weight and height that were considered to be adequately adjusted. The HRs tended to be higher when weight and height were self-reported rather than measured. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Relative to normal weight, both obesity (all grades) and grades 2 and 3 obesity were associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality. Grade 1 obesity overall was not associated with higher mortality, and overweight was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality. The use of predefined standard BMI groupings can facilitate between-study comparisons. SN - 1538-3598 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23280227/Association_of_all_cause_mortality_with_overweight_and_obesity_using_standard_body_mass_index_categories:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/10.1001/jama.2012.113905 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -