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Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 22; 110(4):1393-7.PN

Abstract

The biotic recovery from Earth's most severe extinction event at the Permian-Triassic boundary largely reestablished the preextinction structure of marine trophic networks, with marine reptiles assuming the predator roles. However, the highest trophic level of today's marine ecosystems, i.e., macropredatory tetrapods that forage on prey of similar size to their own, was thus far lacking in the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Here we report a top-tier tetrapod predator, a very large (>8.6 m) ichthyosaur from the early Middle Triassic (244 Ma), of Nevada. This ichthyosaur had a massive skull and large labiolingually flattened teeth with two cutting edges indicative of a macropredatory feeding style. Its presence documents the rapid evolution of modern marine ecosystems in the Triassic where the same level of complexity as observed in today's marine ecosystems is reached within 8 My after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and within 4 My of the time reptiles first invaded the sea. This find also indicates that the biotic recovery in the marine realm may have occurred faster compared with terrestrial ecosystems, where the first apex predators may not have evolved before the Carnian.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23297200

Citation

Fröbisch, Nadia B., et al. "Macropredatory Ichthyosaur From the Middle Triassic and the Origin of Modern Trophic Networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1393-7.
Fröbisch NB, Fröbisch J, Sander PM, et al. Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110(4):1393-7.
Fröbisch, N. B., Fröbisch, J., Sander, P. M., Schmitz, L., & Rieppel, O. (2013). Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(4), 1393-7. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1216750110
Fröbisch NB, et al. Macropredatory Ichthyosaur From the Middle Triassic and the Origin of Modern Trophic Networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013 Jan 22;110(4):1393-7. PubMed PMID: 23297200.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks. AU - Fröbisch,Nadia B, AU - Fröbisch,Jörg, AU - Sander,P Martin, AU - Schmitz,Lars, AU - Rieppel,Olivier, Y1 - 2013/01/07/ PY - 2013/1/9/entrez PY - 2013/1/9/pubmed PY - 2013/3/22/medline SP - 1393 EP - 7 JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JO - Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. VL - 110 IS - 4 N2 - The biotic recovery from Earth's most severe extinction event at the Permian-Triassic boundary largely reestablished the preextinction structure of marine trophic networks, with marine reptiles assuming the predator roles. However, the highest trophic level of today's marine ecosystems, i.e., macropredatory tetrapods that forage on prey of similar size to their own, was thus far lacking in the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Here we report a top-tier tetrapod predator, a very large (>8.6 m) ichthyosaur from the early Middle Triassic (244 Ma), of Nevada. This ichthyosaur had a massive skull and large labiolingually flattened teeth with two cutting edges indicative of a macropredatory feeding style. Its presence documents the rapid evolution of modern marine ecosystems in the Triassic where the same level of complexity as observed in today's marine ecosystems is reached within 8 My after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction and within 4 My of the time reptiles first invaded the sea. This find also indicates that the biotic recovery in the marine realm may have occurred faster compared with terrestrial ecosystems, where the first apex predators may not have evolved before the Carnian. SN - 1091-6490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23297200/Macropredatory_ichthyosaur_from_the_Middle_Triassic_and_the_origin_of_modern_trophic_networks_ L2 - http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=23297200 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -