Clinical determinants of primary and secondary fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.J Neurol. 2013 Jun; 260(6):1554-61.JN
Clinical and psychosocial factors associated separately with primary and secondary fatigue in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have not been thoroughly studied before. The aim of our study was to assess factors associated with different fatigue domains in groups with primary and secondary fatigue in PD separately. We divided 165 non-demented PD patients according to the absence/presence of depression, anxiety and excessive somnolence into groups with primary fatigue (N = 63) and with secondary fatigue (N = 102). Fatigue domains examined using the multidimensional fatigue inventory were associated through multiple linear regression analyses for each group separately with sociodemographic data, disease duration, functional status as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, treatment, depression, anxiety, excessive somnolence and sleep quality. Out of the assessed non-motor symptoms, fatigue was the most frequent (77.6%). The prevalence of fatigue in the secondary fatigue group was significantly higher than in the primary fatigue group. Both fatigue groups differed significantly in factors associated with different fatigue domains. Functional status or other disease-related factors were not associated with primary fatigue. In the secondary fatigue group, we found associations between some fatigue domains and functional status, older age, male gender and higher anxiety scores. To our knowledge, this is the first study to separately describe clinical determinants and psychosocial factors associated with different fatigue domains in primary and secondary fatigue in PD, underlining the importance of distinguishing primary and secondary fatigue in future PD studies and clinical practice.