Purification of an antifungal compound, cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu) for cereals produced by Bacillus cereus subsp. thuringiensis associated with entomopathogenic nematode.Microbiol Res. 2013 Jun 12; 168(5):278-88.MR
Mold spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in cereals and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to separate and purify and to identify antifungal compounds of bacterium associated with novel entomopathogenic nematode and check the antifungal property of identified compound in particular food model systems. The antifungal compound was purified using silica gel column chromatography, TLC and HPLC and its structure was elucidated using NMR (¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, ¹H-¹H COSY, ¹H-¹³C HMBC), HRMS and Marfey's method. Based on the spectral data, the active compounds were identified as diketopiperazine [cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu)]. The antifungal activity of cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu) was studied by MIC and paper disk assay against Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 282 and best MIC value of 8μg/ml was recorded against A. flavus. Cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu) strongly inhibit mycelia growth of fungus and thereby affecting aflatoxin production. To investigate the potential application of the cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu) and to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, soybean and peanut were used as models. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of A. flavus were observed in the control soybeans after 2-day incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in soybeans treated with cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu). Almost the same result was observed for peanuts treated with cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu) for A. niger. The cyclo(l-Pro-d-Leu) was nontoxic to two normal human cell lines (FS normal fibroblast and L231 lung epithelial) up to 200μg/ml. Thus the diketopiperazine derivative identified in the study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative which prevent fungal growth and mycotoxin formation in food and feed.