Cross-protective efficacy of bivalent recombinant baculoviral vaccine against heterologous influenza H5N1 challenge.Vaccine. 2013 Feb 27; 31(10):1385-92.V
The present study demonstrates the cross-protective efficacy of baculovirus displayed HAs of A/Indonesia/669/06 and A/Anhui/01/05 against heterologous H5N1 challenges in a mouse model. Mice orally or subcutaneously immunized with live bivalent-BacHA vaccine significantly induced higher HA-specific humoral and cellular immune responses when compared with inactivated bivalent-BacHA. In addition, oral administration of live bivalent-BacHA vaccine was able to induce significant level of antigen-specific mucosal IgA levels. Microneutralization assay indicated that live bivalent-BacHA vaccine was able to induce strong cross-clade neutralization titer against distinct H5N1 clades (1, 2.1.3, 22.214.171.124, 2.3.2, 2.3.4, 4, 7 and 9). The production of both interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) by splenocytes from vaccinated mice indicated that mice vaccinated orally or subcutaneously with live bivalent-BacHA stimulated both IFN-γ secreting Th1 cells and IL-4 secreting Th2 cells, whereas mice immunized subcutaneously with inactive adjuvanted bivalent-BacHA stimulated only IL-4 secreting Th2 cells. Cross-protective immunity study also showed that mice immunized either orally or subcutaneously with live bivalent-BacHA were completely protected against 5MLD50 of clade 1 and clade 126.96.36.199 H5N1 viral infections. The protective immune response elicited by bivalent-BacHA vaccine against H5N1 variants demonstrates the possibility of protection against a broad range of H5N1 strains.