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Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006.
Nutrients. 2013 Jan 22; 5(1):283-301.N

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States.

METHODS

Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order.

RESULTS

The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy - milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein - milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars - soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars - soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber - fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat - cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol - eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D - milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium - milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium - milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium - salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%).

CONCLUSIONS

Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children's diets.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Food & Nutrition Database Research, Inc., 1801 Shadywood Lane, Okemos, MI 48864, USA. conkeastdeb@comcast.netNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23340318

Citation

Keast, Debra R., et al. "Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients Among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006." Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 1, 2013, pp. 283-301.
Keast DR, Fulgoni VL, Nicklas TA, et al. Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients. 2013;5(1):283-301.
Keast, D. R., Fulgoni, V. L., Nicklas, T. A., & O'Neil, C. E. (2013). Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients, 5(1), 283-301. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5010283
Keast DR, et al. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients Among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients. 2013 Jan 22;5(1):283-301. PubMed PMID: 23340318.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Food sources of energy and nutrients among children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. AU - Keast,Debra R, AU - Fulgoni,Victor L,3rd AU - Nicklas,Theresa A, AU - O'Neil,Carol E, Y1 - 2013/01/22/ PY - 2012/11/08/received PY - 2013/01/03/revised PY - 2013/01/07/accepted PY - 2013/1/24/entrez PY - 2013/1/24/pubmed PY - 2013/6/12/medline SP - 283 EP - 301 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 5 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. METHODS: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. RESULTS: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy - milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein - milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars - soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars - soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber - fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat - cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol - eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D - milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium - milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium - milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium - salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children's diets. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23340318/Food_sources_of_energy_and_nutrients_among_children_in_the_United_States:_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey_2003–2006_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu5010283 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -