Emergence of new norovirus strain GII.4 Sydney--United States, 2012.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Jan 25; 62(3):55.MM
Noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, including foodborne outbreaks, in the United States. Hospitalization and mortality associated with norovirus infection occur most frequently among elderly persons, young children, and immunocompromised patients. Noroviruses belong to the family Caliciviridae and can be grouped into five genogroups (GI through GV), which are further divided into at least 34 genotypes. Human disease primarily is caused by GI and GII noroviruses, with most outbreaks caused by GII.4 strains. During the past decade, new GII.4 strains have emerged every 2-3 years, replacing previously predominant GII.4 strains. Emergence of these new norovirus strains has often, but not always, led to increased outbreak activity. For example, the previously dominant GII.4 New Orleans strain was not associated with increased norovirus outbreak activity in the United States. CDC collects information on norovirus strains associated with outbreaks in the United States through an electronic laboratory surveillance network called CaliciNet. This report documents the recent emergence of a new GII.4 strain, GII.4 Sydney, which caused most (53%) of the norovirus outbreaks reported through CaliciNet during September-December 2012. Continued surveillance will enable further assessment of the public health implications and significance of this new strain.