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Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Feb; 19(2):237-45.EI

Abstract

Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. inp7@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23347770

Citation

Nakazawa, Yoshinori, et al. "Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 2, 2013, pp. 237-45.
Nakazawa Y, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, et al. Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005. Emerging Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):237-45.
Nakazawa, Y., Emerson, G. L., Carroll, D. S., Zhao, H., Li, Y., Reynolds, M. G., Karem, K. L., Olson, V. A., Lash, R. R., Davidson, W. B., Smith, S. K., Levine, R. S., Regnery, R. L., Sammons, S. A., Frace, M. A., Mutasim, E. M., Karsani, M. E., Muntasir, M. O., Babiker, A. A., ... Damon, I. K. (2013). Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(2), 237-45. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121220
Nakazawa Y, et al. Phylogenetic and Ecologic Perspectives of a Monkeypox Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2005. Emerging Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):237-45. PubMed PMID: 23347770.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005. AU - Nakazawa,Yoshinori, AU - Emerson,Ginny L, AU - Carroll,Darin S, AU - Zhao,Hui, AU - Li,Yu, AU - Reynolds,Mary G, AU - Karem,Kevin L, AU - Olson,Victoria A, AU - Lash,R Ryan, AU - Davidson,Whitni B, AU - Smith,Scott K, AU - Levine,Rebecca S, AU - Regnery,Russell L, AU - Sammons,Scott A, AU - Frace,Michael A, AU - Mutasim,Elmangory M, AU - Karsani,Mubarak E M, AU - Muntasir,Mohammed O, AU - Babiker,Alimagboul A, AU - Opoka,Langova, AU - Chowdhary,Vipul, AU - Damon,Inger K, PY - 2013/1/26/entrez PY - 2013/1/26/pubmed PY - 2013/7/3/medline SP - 237 EP - 45 JF - Emerging infectious diseases JO - Emerging Infect. Dis. VL - 19 IS - 2 N2 - Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans. SN - 1080-6059 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23347770/full_citation L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.121220 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -